5 Paragraph Order - UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC...

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Unformatted text preview: UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019 COMBAT ORDERS FOUNDATIONS B2B2377 STUDENT HANDOUT Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Combat Orders Foundations Introduction Combat orders instruction at The Basic School (TBS) is a detailed, rigorous package that strives to develop and evaluate your ability communicate a tactical decision to peers and subordinates in order to execute your plan in a time-competitive environment. The primary focus throughout the instruction and evaluation will be on action. Significant events from the combat orders package include: Combat Orders Foundations, Combat Orders Discussion Group, Combat Orders Evaluation I and II, and Combat Orders Extension. Importance Not only is the commander’s will decisive in war, but also his manner of expressing that will. Commanders use orders to express their will and translate their decisions into actions. During your time at TBS, you will be required to brief and write numerous combat orders. Your tactical actions and necessary communication for action will be evaluated under the dynamic, chaotic, and uncertain lens espoused in MCDP 1. A solid understanding of the Combat Order is inherent to Marine Corps leadership. In This Lesson Initially, we shall discuss the combat orders fundamentals and foundations. We shall also review three types of orders, the required information, and various techniques for effective issue and receipt of combat orders. We shall review some examples that are included at the end of the student handout. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Combat Orders Fundamentals Types of Orders Order Format Command Relationships Techniques for Issuing an Order Summary References Notes Appendix A Offensive Squad Operations Appendix B Offensive Platoon Operations Appendix C Example of a Platoon Offensive Order Appendix D Example of a Platoon (Reinforced) Defense Order 2 Page 4 5 7 18 18 21 21 22 23 28 33 44 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Combat Orders Foundations (Continued) Learning Objectives Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS.09.16a Given an operations order, commander’s guidance, the Commander’s Tactical Handbook, and a scenario on a map or sand table or in a simulated combat environment, receive orders to develop an appropriate written or verbal order. MCCS.09.16b Given an operations order, commander’s guidance, the Commander’s Tactical Handbook, and a scenario on a map or sand table or in a simulated combat environment, develop orders to accomplish the mission. MCCS.13.25b Given a tactical scenario on a map, computer, or sand table or in a simulated combat environment, a verbal or written order from higher, a rifle squad or platoon, and the Commander’s Tactical Handbook, issue Warning Orders in order to prepare a unit for combat operations. MCCS.15.19e Given a tactical scenario on a map or sand table or in simulated combat environment, a unit organic to a rifle company, a verbal fragmentary order from higher, limited planning time, and with the aid of the Commander's Tactical Handbook, issue verbal fragmentary orders over the radio, via messenger, or in person, to maintain operational tempo, adapt to changing situations, and accomplish the mission. 3 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Combat Orders Fundamentals MCRP 5-2A, Operational Terms and Graphics, defines an order as, “A communication, written, oral, or by signal, which conveys instructions from a superior to a subordinate. In a broad sense, the term order and command are synonymous. However, an order implies discretion as to the details of execution whereas a command does not.” In essence, combat orders express the will of the commander. They must be brief, clear, and definite. A decision, however promising, will most likely fail if the commander cannot effectively express it in an order. “The essential thing is action. Action has three stages: the decision must be born of thought, the order or preparation for execution, and the execution itself. All three stages are governed by the will.” –General Hans Von Seekt The stages of action described above relate to the famous Boyd cycle, and the continuous process of observation, orientation, decision, and action (the OODA-loop). It begins when we receive a mission and ends when the mission is complete. A commander’s ability to deliver orders corresponds directly to his tactical skill. If the commander conducts an accurate estimate of the situation and arrives at a definite tactical decision, then he typically issues an effective order. Conversely, a commander who cannot make a decision often will not produce an effective order. Delivering combat orders, like tactical decision-making, is an art. To be effective, commanders must frequently practice making decisions and articulating orders. A competent commander avoids highly formalized formats or lengthy order procedures. They limit his flexibility and increase the potential for miscommunication. Often, he must individualize orders to best match the abilities of those who receive it. (See Von Schnell’s Battle Leadership). A commander will issue a more detailed order to inexperienced or unfamiliar subordinates than he would to those with whom he knows and trusts. Mission tactics are crucial to the art of combat orders. Von Schnell describes them as follows: …We use what we term “mission tactics;” orders are not written out in the minute detail, a mission is merely given to the commander. How it shall be carried out is his problem. This is done because the commander on the ground is the only one who can correctly judge existing conditions and take proper action if a chance occurs in the situation. There is also a strong psychological reason for these “mission tactics.” The commander, who can make his own decisions within the limits of his mission, feels responsible for what he does. Consequently, he will accomplish more because he will act in accordance with his own psychological individuality. Give the same independence to your platoon and squad leaders… 4 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Combat Orders Fundamentals (Continued) There will be situations (such as less experienced units) where more detailed control is necessary and mission tactics may not be practical. More detailed control is often applied to peacetime live-fire exercises when there is greater emphasis on precision than flexibility. Use mission-type orders whenever the situation allows, but their usage shall not excuse analysis or to relax discipline. According to Sun Tzu, speed is the essence of war. Orders must be executed in a timely manner; General Patton observed “that a good plan violently executed now is better than a perfect plan executed next week.” In his review of some lessons learned by the United States (US) Army in World War I, General George C. Marshall wrote: In studying the examples of the orders issued to our troops in France, several important points deserve consideration in determining the relative excellence of the orders issued. It is frequently the case that what appears to have been a model order was actually the reverse, and a poorly and apparently hastily prepared order will often be erroneously condemned. Many orders, models in their form, failed to reach the troops in time to affect their actions, and many apparently crude and fragmentary instructions did reach front-line commanders in time to enable the purpose of higher command to be carried out on the battlefield. It is apparent that unless an order is issued in time for its instructions to percolate down throughout the organization sufficiently in advance of an engagement to enable each commander to arrange his unit accordingly, that order is a failure, however perfect it may appear on paper. Our troops suffered much from the delays involved in preparing long and complicated orders due to the failure of the staff…to recognize that speed was more important than technique. According to MCDP 5 (Planning), “the more urgent the situation, the greater need for brevity and simplicity.” Remember that an effective combat order is much more than merely passing information. You must convey your will. A good order is as much inspiration as information. The confidence and enthusiasm in which you deliver your order is as important as the order itself. Types of Orders Combat orders are distinguished from administrative orders by their purpose and tactical action. There are several types of combat orders; the most common are the: • • • Operation Order. Warning Order. Fragmentary Order. 5 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Types of Orders (Continued) Operation Order An operation order is “a directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation.” Commanders at all echelons use them. They can be issued orally or in writing. When written, they can be only a page or two long or as thick as a phone book. You may also hear them referred to as five-paragraph orders. When dealing with small units, operation orders are often referred to by the action they intend. For example: • • • • • Squad attack order. Patrol order. Platoon attack order. Platoon (rein) attack order. Convoy order. Operations orders often have several annexes that contain specific details on fire support, communication, air or maritime movement, etc. Annexes are common in battalion and higher orders, but uncommon in typical platoon attack orders. You will not deal with annexes during the Basic Officer Course (BOC). What you will use during the BOC is a version of the five-paragraph operations order format specially adapted for use by companies, platoons, and squads. (See appendices.) The same format is in the latest version of your Commander's Tactical Notebook. Warning Order A warning order is “a preliminary notice of an order or action which is to follow.” Its primary purpose is to allow subordinate units to prepare while commanders continue the planning process. A warning order is really nothing more than a “heads up.” In order to create a warning order, it is ideal that you identify all the pertinent information and categorize it within the 5-paragraph order format. There are different methods of disseminating the information to your Marines. In Patrolling Operations, you will learn some of the most common methods of issuing a warning order to your subordinates. Don't delay issuing a warning order because you don't have all the information you would like to have. 6 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Types of Orders (Continued) Fragmentary Order A fragmentary order (or “Frag-O”) is “an abbreviated form of an operation order, usually issued on a day-to-day basis that eliminates the need for restating information contained in a basic operations order. It may be issued in sections.” Fragmentary orders are often necessary due to enemy action. Remember “no plan survives contact with the enemy.” Expect fragmentary orders in most operations. Fragmentary orders typically contain the mission (paragraph II) and execution (paragraph III), but they also will contain any other parts of the order that have changed since you issued the original operation order. Fragmentary orders are an important technique to keep orders short. In general, fragmentary orders contain changes to the previously given orders; consequently, the information communicated does not repeat unchanged information. (However, it is recommended that if there are no changes to a particular paragraph, subparagraph, or section, in order to alleviate any potential confusion, the order issuer shall state the name of the section and “No changes.”) Order Format Combat orders come in a variety of forms. They range from a few hasty instructions shouted by a squad leader in the heat of battle to a phonebook-sized written operations order for a joint task force signed by the joint force commander. Your combat orders instruction at TBS is focused at the lower end of the spectrum, including concise attack or patrol orders delivered orally to squad and platoon elements. Formats Several nations have agreed to use the format contained in standard agreement (STANAG 2014). Most Marines will recognize it as the five-paragraph order format, otherwise known as SMEAC. Nearly all combat orders used by the US Armed Forces and NATO allies are based on all or part of the five-paragraph format. (See Appendix A.) Remember that the order is simply the means by which your decision is converted into action. A short, simple order that efficiently conveys your will is superior to a lengthy, complicated order that invites ambiguity. Do not allow your decision to become lost in a series of paragraphs, subparagraphs, alpha-numerics, and acronyms. As it clearly states in Planning (MCDP 5), “…content, clarity, and conciseness are more important than format.” 7 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) O-SMEAC There are six main sections to the Five Paragraph Order. They are as follows Orientation Situation Mission Execution Administration & Logistics Command & Signal I II III IV V There are many subparagraphs, sections, and subsections that serve to structure the order issue so that required information is included, delivered, and issued in a clear manner. In the Student Handout appendices, there are several templates that can be used for various evolutions. Evaluation will be based upon these templates. Orientation The orientation is a general overview which serves to orient the recipient to the medium by which the order is issued, whether it be a terrain model, a whiteboard, a sand table, etc. Included in the Orientation are several critical elements of information such as current location, direction of north, key terrain, tactical control measures within the Area of Operations (AO), weather, illumination, visibility, a local history of the area/population, enemy positions, and direction of attack. Terrain Models During the period of instruction here at TBS, you will receive a class on terrain models and how to build, prepare, and brief one to your Marines. Components of a good terrain model include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • North-seeking arrow. Grid lines. Water features. Vegetation. Relief features. Boundaries. Known trails. Landing Zones. Built-up areas. Tactical Control Measures (TCMs). Targets. Main Supply Routes (MSRs). 8 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Terrain Models (Continued) To avoid wasting time reading grid coordinates several times during the order and to eliminate any possible error during transcription, write the grid coordinates on 3x5 cards and include them on the terrain model. During your Orientation, brief each TCM and state each grid coordinate twice. The first time allows subordinates to record the grid and the second time allows subordinates the opportunity to check the grid. Include grid coordinates for the following: • • • • Paragraph I: Situation TCMs. Objectives. Check Points. Targets. The first paragraph is the Situation which encompasses three subparagraphs: Enemy, Friendly, and Attachments/ Detachments. Each of these is a critical component of information that must be disseminated to subordinates. • Enemy Situation. The Enemy situation is divided into three sections: Enemy Forces, Enemy Capabilities/Limitations, and Enemy’s Most Probable Course of Action. o Enemy Forces. The Enemy Forces section encompasses the composition, disposition, and strength of the enemy force. An acronym used to describe the enemy forces is SALUTE which stands for Size, Activity, Location, Unit, Time, and Equipment. o Enemy Capabilities/Limitations. The Capabilities/Limitations section answers the question, “What can the Enemy do?” An acronym used to describe the enemy’s capabilities is DRAW-D, which stands for Defend, Reinforce, Attack, Withdraw, and Delay. The leader takes the quantitative and qualitative information provided in the Enemy Forces section into account and determines what actions they are capable of committing against us. 9 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph I: Situation (Continued) • Enemy Situation (Continued). o Enemy’s Most Probable Course of Action (EMPCOA). The leader must determine the enemy’s most likely action. This is accomplished by conducting an analysis of many factors, including Enemy Forces and Enemy Capabilities and Limitations. • Friendly Situation. The Friendly situation is divided into three sections: Higher’s Mission/Intent, Adjacent Units, and Supporting Units. Often, leaders refer to the acronym HAS. o Higher’s Mission/Intent. Leaders must publish the pertinent information provided from higher in their order. This is done to ensure that all Marines understand the underlying goals and endstates desired by the higher command. Typically, a unit leader will state his higher unit’s mission and desired endstate. o Adjacent Units. This information is included in orders to provide subordinates with sufficient information to understand the operational environment around them in the geo-spatial dynamic. Unit movement and effects of fires are important considerations that must be disseminated to subordinates. In a non-linear battlefield environment, this includes left, right, front, and rear. o Supporting Units. Information on units supporting the operation is provided to inform all subordinates of these assets. For example, any fire support assets should be identified with their locations, azimuths of fire, contact information, employment (GS, DS, ATT), and any priority of fires. In addition, any available air assets should also be listed (whether they be capable of CAS or extraction assistance). 10 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph I: Situation (Continued) • Paragraph II: Mission The second paragraph is that of the mission. A mission statement contains a task and a purpose. For platoon and squad leaders, the mission statement is normally identical to the task issued by the higher command. Every mission statement started as a task statement and thus must include certain criteria. A mission statement should include the answers to the “5 W’s”: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. “Why” is identified as the most important because it informs subordinates of the reason the task must be accomplished. If the underlying premise for the task is understood, subordinate unit leaders will be able to determine appropriate mission-based actions at various points of friction should the unit commander not be present. Thus, the unit will have a better chance of overall mission accomplishment. Paragraph III: Execution The Execution paragraph is where the unit leader describes and conveys his plan for accomplishing the unit mission. It includes four main subparagraphs: Commander’s Intent, Concept of Operations, Tasks, and Coordinating Instructions. • Attachments/Detachments. Any attachments that a higher command attached to your unit will be listed here. This includes any of the following: Machinegun (MG) squads, Assault teams, Forward Observer teams, Sniper teams, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel, military working dog (MWD) teams, civilian journalists, hospital corpsmen, and any other personnel not organic to your unit. These personnel must be included in your administrative reports and provided for (chow, water, etc). Commander’s Intent. This subparagraph describes the Commander’s Intent in terms of four components: the Center of Gravity, the Critical Vulnerability, the Exploitation plan, and the desired Endstate. “Understanding the intent of our commander allows us to exercise initiative in harmony with the commander’s desires….A clear expression and understanding of intent is essential to unity of effort.” (MCDP 1) 11 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph III: Execution (Continued) • Commander’s Intent (Continued) o Center of Gravity. Factors critical to the enemy which, if eliminated, will bend the enemy to our will are centers of gravity. The unit commander should identify the Enemy’s center of gravity as befitting the enemy described in Paragraph I, subparagraph A, section 1 (Enemy Forces). o Critical Vulnerability. The weakness which, if exploited, will do the most significant damage to the enemy’s resistance is called the critical vulnerability. The unit commander should identify the Enemy’s critical vulnerability as befitting the enemy described in Paragraph I, subparagraph A, section 1 (Enemy Forces). o Exploitation plan. The unit commander should include his identified plan of how the enemy’s critical vulnerability will be exploited by the unit’s scheme of maneuver. o Endstate. The commander will describe what he envisions after the dust of the battle has settled. This Endstate can be relative to enemy units, friendly units, or terrain. Ensuring that the desired endstate is pushed to all subordinates provides for flexibility on the battlefield, for if all subordinates clearly understand the desired endstate they are capable of independently driving that goal even if the original proposed plan goes awry. • Concept of Operations. The unit commander will explain his plan in the Concept of Operations. The two components within this subparagraph are the Scheme of Maneuver and the Fire Support Plan. Included within this outline are two examples of Schemes of Maneuver: offensive and defensive. Each scheme of maneuver has separate and specific essential elements that must be included in the unit commander’s order. 12 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph III: Execution (Continued) o Offensive Scheme of Maneuver. This section describes the plan by which the unit commander has decided he will exploit the enemy’s critical vulnerability. The plan must be anonymous so as not to create the potential for subordinate units to isolate their attention to solely their role. The plan must be sequential so as to create a chronological structure to the operation which translates into clarity among subordinates and order recipients. The plan must be general and include all required information but not belabor details. Unit commanders are encouraged to “walk the dog” during the scheme of maneuver, which entails physically manipulating some graphic along a physical representation of the terrain through the various tactical control measures. There are five essential elements of the offensive scheme of maneuver which include: Distribution of Forces, Form of Maneuver, Direction of Attack, TCMs, and Consolidation. − Distribution of Forces. The unit commander should specify the breakdown of his forces. One common method includes a Main Effort and several Supporting Efforts. This must be specified for all subordinates. − Form of Maneuver. The unit commander must specify the form of maneuver to be incorporated in the operation. While at TBS, you will most likely use either the frontal or flanking attack. However, MCDP 1-0 (p. 7-16) discusses other options, including the envelopment, the double envelopment, the turning movement, the infiltration, and the penetration. − Direction of Attack. The unit commander should specify the direction of attack. This direction indicates the general direction from the Assembly Area (AA) to the Objective. A common practice is to use the direction of movement upon crossing the line of departure (LD). 13 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph III: Execution (Continued) • Concept of Operations o Offensive Scheme of Maneuver (Continued). − TCMs. The unit commander must brief all the tactical control measures used within the operation and the required actions at each. These are the geographic locations that exist for the unit commander to “assign responsibility, coordinate fire and maneuver, and control operations.” Examples include the AA, the Attack Position, the LD, a Release Point, the Assault Position, and the Objective. They should be identified to all subordinates during the order. − Consolidation. The unit commander should specify his plan for actions upon consolidation. This should include information pertaining to security, resupply, and casualty evacuation among other concerns. o Defensive Scheme of Maneuver. This section describes the plan by which the unit commander has decided he will exploit the enemy’s critical vulnerability. The plan must be anonymous so as not to create the potential for subordinate units to isolate their attention to solely their role. The plan must be sequential so as to create a chronological structure to the operation which translates into clarity among subordinates and order recipients. The plan must be general in nature and include all required information. Unit commanders are encouraged to “walk the dog” during the scheme of maneuver, which entails physically manipulating some graphic along a physical representation of the terrain through the various tactical control measures. There are six essential elements of the defensive scheme of maneuver which include: Distribution of Forces, Orientation of the Defense, Occupation Plan, Type and Technique of Position Defense, TCMs, and the Security Plan. 14 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph III: Execution (Continued) o Defensive Scheme of Maneuver (continued). − Distribution of Forces. The unit commander should specify the breakdown of his forces. One common method includes a Main Effort and several Supporting Efforts. This must be specified for all subordinates. − Orientation of the Defense. The unit commander should specify the general cardinal direction to which the defensive position will be oriented. This direction should indicate the general direction from which the enemy attack is suspected. − Occupation Plan. The unit commander should identify the plan by which the unit will occupy the defensive position. There are three recognized methods of occupation: Crow’s Foot, Bent-L, and a combination method. In Platoon Operations, you will learn how to employ these methods. − Type and Technique of Position Defense. The unit commander should identify to subordinates the type of defensive position desired. According to FMFM 6-4 (Marine Rifle Company/Platoon), there are two types of Position Defense: strongpoint and battle position. There are three techniques of a battle position defense: linear, perimeter, and reverse slope. These terms will be explained in depth later in Platoon Operations. − TCMs. The unit commander must include all the TCMs used within the operation and actions required at each. These are the geographic locations that exist for the unit commander to “assign responsibility, coordinate fire and maneuver, and control operations.” Examples of common tactical control measures to be used in a defensive scheme of maneuver include the AA, Boundaries, Objective Rally Point (ORP), Left Lateral Limit, Right Lateral Limit, Forward Line of Troops (FLOT), Target Reference Points (TRP), Trigger Lines, Listening Post/Observation Post (LP/OP), 15 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph III: Execution (Continued) o Defensive Scheme of Maneuver (continued). − TCMs (Continued). Final Protective Lines (FPL), Principle Directions of Fire (PDF), and the Final Protective Fires (FPF). These TCMs are to be included at the unit commander’s discretion as required to clearly explain the plan. − Security Plan. The unit commander should describe the desired security plan envisioned for the defensive position. The security plan portion of the Scheme of Maneuver should identify tentative locations of any LP/OP’s, the tentative barrier plans (to include wire, obstacles, ditches, and minefields), alternate and supplementary positions, planned patrolling effort, and proposed readiness conditions (25% security, etc.). o Fire Support Plan. The unit commander will recite his fire support plan to all order recipients. He will indicate what indirect fires he plans to use to support the operation. The assets discussed here must either be organic to the unit or must have been discussed earlier in the order in Paragraph I, Subparagraph B, Section 2 (Situation, Friendly, Supporting). The fire support plan should mention any targets that support the operation (by target number), the target description, the respective fire support agency, the shell/fuse combination desired, the frequency upon which the fires shall be requested, and the primary and alternate observers for the fires. • Tasks. The unit commander will task his subordinate unit leaders in this subparagraph. Each task becomes the mission statement of the subordinate unit leader, and thus is required to include all the same criteria as for a mission statement, including the answers to the “5 W’s”: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. “Who” refers to the subordinate unit designated to accomplish the task assigned. 16 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph IV: Administration and Logistics • Tasks (Continued). . For all offensive (and defensive) operations, the “what” refers to the assigned tactical task; the TBS student is encouraged to use Marine Corps Operations (MCDP 1-0), Appendix C for a list of thirty-five appropriate tactical tasks. (Note: Only use tactical tasks for subordinate units. If tasking an individual, a unit leader may choose to issue a more pragmatic task: supervise, coordinate, etc. Furthermore, if the operation is not offensive or defensive in nature, the subordinate units are not required to receive tactical tasks. An example of this would be convoy operations.) “When” refers to the time the assigned task is required to occur. “Where” refers to the geographic location at which the effects of the tactical task are required. “Why” is identified as the most important because it informs subordinates of the reason the task must be accomplished. If the underlying premise for the task is understood, there is a greater chance that the mission will be successfully accomplished. The purpose should be related to the higher unit’s endstate as briefed earlier. During this phase, the unit commander will again “walk the dog”, but with graphics that accurately depict the designated subordinate units. • Paragraph III: Execution (Continued) Coordinating Instructions. Any instructions that are not included in tasks and that pertain to two or more subordinate units are included in this subparagraph. The unit commander will identify many general details that are imperative for mission success. Some details include a timeline, priority of rehearsals, lost Marine plan (by phase), a no-communications plan, establishment of priorities of work, the designation of a base unit, all TCMs, the Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) level, go/no-go criteria, and abort criteria. In this paragraph, the unit commander identifies the administrative and logistical information necessary for the operation to be successful. There are two subparagraphs in Paragraph IV: Administration and Logistics. 17 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph IV: Administration and Logistics (Continued) Administration. The unit commander will explain his plan for all administrative issues in this subparagraph. He will specify locations and points of contact for all wounded in action (WIA), killed in action (KIA), and Enemy prisoners of war (EPWs) during the operation. Casualty Collection Points (CCPs) should be identified for all subordinates. • Paragraph V: Command and Signal • Logistics. In this subparagraph, the unit commander presents his plan for all logistics issues. In addition, he identifies the preparations for receiving required equipment for the operation. Resupply issues are also briefed, such as time/location and priority of units. This paragraph concentrates on the unit commander’s plan for command and control during the operation. There are two subparagraphs in this section: Signal and Command. • Signal. The Signal subparagraph contains crucial communication-related information such as the established primary/alternate Challenge and Password, primary/alternate radio frequencies to be used during the operation, and any other signals (pyro, smoke) that the unit commander has designated to include in his Scheme of Maneuver. The location of a copy of the Communications/ Electronic Operational Instructions (CEOI) should be briefed. • Command. Within this subparagraph, there are two sections: Location of Key Personnel and Succession of Command. o Location of Key Personnel. The unit commander shall specify the location of each key individual throughout the entire operation. If the location of various key personnel is to change due to the determined Scheme of Maneuver, the unit commander shall identify this and disseminate the information to the subordinate units. 18 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Order Format (Continued) Paragraph V: Command and Signal (Continued) • Command. (Continued) o Succession of Command. The unit commander shall determine the succession of command among his subordinate unit leaders. This should be somewhat dependent upon the Scheme of Maneuver. Techniques for Issuing an Order • Prioritization. In combat, time is crucial. You will never have enough time to create and issue as thorough an order as desired. As you execute the troopleading steps and begin the planning, it is constructive to issue a Warning Order to allow your unit the maximum amount of preparation time. Then, analyze the situation, mission, and execution. Leave the less critical portions of your order until the order completion phase. • All-Hands. When necessary, issue your order to all your Marines. At the company level and below you may have the opportunity to issue orders to the entire unit at once. This is a good method of communicating your will to allhands. However, the tactical situation will often not permit the use of this technique. Identify the key leadership within your unit that will be your required audience for all orders; squad leaders, guide, attachments, etc. However, don't always expect your subordinate leaders to come to you. They may be restrained from movement due to combat, mission, or any other situation. One method is to visit each of your subordinate leaders personally and issue your order individually. • 1/3, 2/3 Rule. Give subordinate leaders enough time to prepare and issue their own orders. Divide your available time in thirds. Use one-third yourself, and give the remaining two-thirds of the time to subordinate leaders. • Visual Aids. If possible, issue your order on the terrain where you will act. If that is not possible, issue your order using a sand table or dry erase board. If in the field, you can build a terrain model. You will be expected to build and use terrain models when issuing your orders at TBS. You can use wire, string, yarn, colored chalk, laminated index cards, and even small plastic toys as a means of graphically communicating your order. • Establish Command Presence. Never permit sleeping, talking, eating, or any other distraction during your order. Conduct a roll call prior to issuing your order to ensure that key personnel are present. Position your subordinate leaders. Require note-taking among order recipients. 19 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Techniques for Issuing an Order (Continued) • Oral Communication. When possible, issue your order in person. Much communication is nonverbal; you can better communicate to your subordinate leaders when you present them the order using aids such as terrain models, sand tables, white boards, etc. (“A picture is worth a thousand words.”) Attentive leaders can accurately gauge a subordinate’s comprehension. An orally presented order flows naturally into back-briefs. Written orders are best reserved for larger units whose size preclude oral orders or when recording operations for historical reasons. Another technique is to use an active voice and direct language that conveys confidence. Avoid vague terms, qualifiers, or gratuitous phrases. Terms such as “conduct a rehearsal, if you can manage it,” “attack vigorously,” and “radioman shall maintain radio communication” only serve to dilute the clarity and energy of your order. Avoid them. • Know your order. In issuing your order, you are ordering your Marines to execute your scheme of maneuver. While they will execute because they are good Marines, never forget that the order issue bears similarity to a sales pitch. You must sell your Marines to not just execute the plan, but also to believe in the plan. It is common to have notes during an order issue, but do not read your order. This undermines the confidence your Marines will have in your plan. You will have difficulty inspiring confidence in your decision if you are reading it. If your understanding of the enemy situation or your scheme of maneuver is so involved that you can’t brief without reading, you probably need to rethink your decision. It may be too complex. • Succinct. Keep orders short and to the point. Planning (MCDP 5) states, “Directives should be as clear, simple, and concise as each situation permits. Elaborateness and extreme detail are not generally characteristics of effective plans and orders… Short sentences are easily understood. Superfluous, trite, or trivial phrases weaken an order and create ambiguity.” Keep in mind that combat is extremely stressful and your Marines will be exhausted, scared, hot, cold, etc. Their attention span will be short. They will not listen to orders that are too long or complicated. Avoid excessive formality or informality when issuing orders. Use a natural conversational tone. You are not required to announce each paragraph and subparagraph when giving your order, however it may assist the flow of the order. You can stay with the format without resorting to this timeconsuming, excessively formal habit. Never allow your orders to degenerate into a casual dialogue. Your order should convey confidence and authority, leaving all who hear little doubt that you are giving an order. • Interaction. Interact with the order recipients. While notes are often needed for referral, do not read your order. Focus on the Marines, for they are to be sent into harm’s way to execute your decisions. You must present the order as if you have absolute confidence in its success. You will experience difficulty inspiring confidence in your decision if you convey uncertainty, lack of familiarity, or doubt. Once you finish delivering your order, field questions from the audience. Then, ask questions of subordinates and demand back-briefs from key subordinate leaders in order to ensure there is full comprehension. 20 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Techniques for Issuing an Order (Continued) • Questions. You will want the order recipients to be clear on the orientation, so allow them the opportunity to ask questions before you begin your actual order. However, before beginning to brief the Situation, instruct the group to hold all their questions until the end of the order. This will eliminate questions that interrupt the flow of your order or may be answered later in the order. Summary During this lesson, we discussed the fundamentals and foundations of combat orders and the role they play in converting decision into action. We focused on three types of orders (Warning Order, Operation Order, and Fragmentary Order); each has a specific purpose and application. Several techniques have been identified as directly contributing to mission accomplishment; they are listed in this section as guidance to which adherence is recommended. References Reference Number or Author MCDP 1 MCDP 1-0 MCDP 5 MCRP 3-11.1A MCWP 3-11.1 MCWP 3-11.2 Reference Title Warfighting Marine Corps Operations Planning Commander’s Tactical Handbook Marine Rifle Company/Platoon Marine Rifle Squad Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Term or Acronym AA AO BOC CCP CEOI COC DOF DRAW-D EMPCOA EOD EPW Definition or Identification Assembly area Area of operations Basic Officer Course Casualty Collection Point Communications/electronic operational instructions Command operations center Direction of fire Defend, reinforce, attack, withdraw, and delay Enemy’s most probable course of action Explosive ordnance disposal Enemy prisoners of war 21 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Glossary of Terms and Acronyms (Continued) Term or Acronym FPL FLOT Frag-O HAS IAW IOT KIA LD LP MG MOPP MSR MWD NVD OODA OP ORP O-SMEAC PDF POF RTO SALUTE TBS TCM TRP TTP US WIA Definition or Identification Final protective lines Forward line of troops Fragmentary order Higher’s mission/intent, adjacent units, and supporting units In accordance with In order to Killed in action Line of departure Listening post Machinegun Mission Oriented Protective Posture Main supply route Military working dog Night vision device Observation, orientation, decision, and action Observation post Objective rally point Orientation, situation, mission, execution, administration & logistics, command & signal Principle directions of fire Priority of fire Radio/Telephone operator Size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment The Basic School Tactical control measure Target reference point Tactics, techniques, and procedures United States Wounded in action Notes 22 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix A Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Squad Operations Orientation. What information does the squad need in order to accomplish the mission? • • • • • • I Is the terrain model properly marked? (Grid lines, N-seeking arrow, water features, vegetation, relief features, boundaries, known trails, landing zones, built-up areas, TCM’s, targets, MSR’s, etc.) What is the astronomical data for the operation? What is the weather situation? What is the visibility of the area? What has the operational tempo been as of late? What is the local history of the area? Situation A. What is the Enemy Situation for your Enemy? (1) (2) Describe the Enemy Capabilities or Limitations (DRAW-D): Can the Enemy Defend? How long? Can the Enemy Reinforce? How long? Can the Enemy Attack? Can the Enemy Withdraw? Can the Enemy Delay? (3) B. Describe the Enemy Forces (SALUTE): What is their Size? What is their Activity? What is their Location? What is their Unit (and what are their TTP’s)? What Time were they observed? What Equipment do they have? Describe the Enemy’s Most Probable Course of Action (EMPCOA): “I believe the Enemy’s Most Probable Course of Action is to….” What is the Friendly Situation? (1) What was Higher’s Mission? What was Higher’s Endstate? 23 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix A (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Squad Operations (Continued) I Situation, B. What is the Friendly Situation? (Continued) (2) (3) C. What units are Adjacent? Who is to the Left? What is their Mission? Who is to the Right? What is their Mission? Who is to the Front? What is their Mission? Who is to the Rear? What is their Mission? What units are Supporting? What is their Command Relationship (GS/DS/ATT)? What is their location? What is their Direction of Fire (DOF)? What is the Priority of Fires (POF)? What units are Attached? Date/Time effective? What units are Detached? Date/Time effective? II Mission Who is to accomplish the task? What is the tactical Task assigned? When is the Task to be executed? Where is the Task to be executed? Why is the Task to be executed? III Execution A. Describe your Commander's Intent: (1) (2) (3) (4) What have you identified as your enemy’s Center of Gravity? What have you identified as your enemy’s Critical Vulnerability? What is the Plan for Exploitation? What is your desired Endstate? B. Describe the Concept of Operations: (1) Explain the Scheme of Maneuver: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. What is the Distribution of Forces for your plan? What is the Form of Maneuver you will use? What is the Direction of Attack? What are the Tactical Control Measures you have designated? What formations will be used from TCM to TCM? What is the Plan for Consolidation? 24 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix A (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Squad Operations III Execution B. Describe the Concept of Operations (Continued). (2) Explain the Fire Support Plan: i. State the purpose of the Fire Support Plan. (“The purpose of my Fire Support Plan is to…”.) ii. What targets have you planned in support of the operation? What are the grid coordinates? iii. What shell/fuse combination have you determined to be most effective? iv. Who is the Primary Observer? Who is Alternate? v. What is the established trigger? vi. On what frequency will the fires be requested? C. Issue Tasks to the subordinate units: Who is to accomplish the task? What is the tactical Task assigned? (See Appendix C, MCDP 1-0.) When is the Task to be executed? Where is the Task to be executed? Why is the Task to be executed? (Tasks incorporate many details: Aid and Litter Teams, EPW Teams, etc. It is not recommended that tasks such as Navigator and Pace Counter are made at the squad level due to manpower restrictions.) D. Brief the Coordinating Instructions: What is the timeline you have created? What is the lost Marine Plan by phase? What are the priorities of work? What is the Base Unit? What are all the Tactical Control Measures incorporated into your SOM? What is the priority of rehearsals you have designated? What is the No-Communications Plan by stage? What is the required MOPP level for the operation? What are the Rules of Engagement for the operation? What are the Go/No-Go criteria? What are the Abort Criteria? 25 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix A (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Squad Operations (Continued) IV Administration and Logistics A. Brief any Administration information: How many Marines are present? Where shall all WIA’s be collected? By phase? Where shall all KIA’s be collected? By phase? Where shall EPW’s be collected? By phase? Where is the Corpsman’s location? What is the CasEvac Plan? B. Brief any Logistics information that was not outlined earlier in your Warning Order: How much ammunition is required? What pyro is allotted to the unit? When shall logistics requirements be requested? How much chow is required? How much water is required? What night vision assets are required? What is the resupply plan? Who has priority? What are the transportation capabilities? V Command and Signal A. Brief any Signal information: What are the frequencies for the operation? Where is the CEOI located? What is the primary Challenge/Password? Alternate? What is the Running Password? What is the Signal Plan? Primary signals? Alternate? B. Brief the required Command information: (1) What is the Location of Key Personnel? Where is the Platoon Commander located? Where is the Platoon Sergeant located? Where is the Squad Leader located? (2) What is the Succession of Command? Who is designated if the Squad Leader is gone? Who is designated if the replacement is gone? 26 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix B Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Platoon Operations Command Operations Center (COC) coordination. (For further information, see Appendix I of the Platoon Commander’s Tactical Handbook [MCRP 3-11.1A].) A. S-1: Admin B. S-2: Intelligence C. S-3: Operations D. S-4: Supply/Logistics E. S-6: Communications Orientation. What information does the platoon need in order to successfully accomplish the mission? • • • • • • I Is the terrain model properly marked? (Grid lines, N-seeking arrow, water features, vegetation, relief features, boundaries, known trails, landing zones, built-up areas, TCM’s, targets, MSR’s, etc.) What is the astronomical data for the operation? What is the weather situation? What is the visibility of the area? What has the operational tempo been as of late? What is the local history of the area? Situation A. What is the Enemy Situation for your Enemy? (1) Describe the Enemy Forces (SALUTE): What is their Size? What is their Activity? What is their Location? What is their Unit (and what are their TTP’s)? What Time were they observed? What Equipment do they have? (2) Describe the Enemy Capabilities or Limitations (DRAW-D): Can the Enemy Defend? How long? Can the Enemy Reinforce? How long? Can the Enemy Attack? Can the Enemy Withdraw? Can the Enemy Delay? 27 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix B (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Platoon Operations I Situation (Continued) (3) Describe the Enemy’s Most Probable Course of Action (EMPCOA), based upon your assumption of enemy contact or observation during the movement or upon the assault on the objective. “I believe the Enemy’s Most Probable Course of Action is to….” B. What is the Friendly Situation? (1) (2) What units are Adjacent? Can you use them for support if needed? Do you have communication with them in case you must make coordination? Who is to the Left? What is their Mission? Who is to the Right? What is their Mission? Who is to the Front? What is their Mission? Who is to the Rear? What is their Mission? (3) C. What was Higher’s Mission? What was Higher’s Endstate? What units are Supporting? What is their Command Relationship (GS/DS/ATT)? What is their location? What is the Priority of Fires? Where are the Company 60mm mortars? What units/individuals are Attached/Detached? (1) What is the status of the Attachments? i. What is the date/time effective? ii. Who is attached? Are they added to the roster? iii. Are they familiar with the Immediate Actions? iv. Are they present at the order? v. Are they present at rehearsals? (2) What is the status of the Detachments? i. What units are Detached? ii. What is the date/time effective? iii. What is the link-up plan? 28 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix B (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Platoon Operations (Continued) II Mission Who is to accomplish the Task assigned? What is the Task assigned? When is the Task to be executed? Where is the Task to be executed? Why is the Task to be executed? III Execution A. Describe your Commander's Intent: (1) (2) (3) (4) B. What have you identified as your enemy’s Center of Gravity? What have you identified as your enemy’s Critical Vulnerability? What is the Exploitation Plan? What is your desired Endstate? What do you envision as a successful attack? Describe the Concept of Operations: (1) Explain the Scheme of Maneuver: i. ii. iii. iv. v. (2) What is the Distribution of Forces? What subunits do you need to identify as a Main Effort? Supporting Efforts? What is the Form of Maneuver? What is the Direction of Attack? What are the Tactical Control Measures? What formations will be used between TCM’s? What is the plan for Consolidation? Explain the Fire Support Plan: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. State the purpose of the Fire Support Plan. (“The purpose of my Fire Support Plan is to…”.) What targets have been planned in support of the operation? What are the grid coordinates? What shell/fuse combination is desired? Who is the Primary Observer? Who is Alternate? Are observers proficient with the Call-For-Fire? On what frequency will the fires be requested? What Priority Targets are planned? Is the List of Targets submitted to the COC? 29 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix B (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Platoon Operations III Execution (Continued) C. Issue Tasks to the subordinate units. (Note: Many tasks should have been already assigned in the Warning Order.) Who is to accomplish the Task? -Platoon Sergeant -Squad leaders -Radio/Telephone Operator (RTO) -Aid and Litter Teams -EPW Teams -Navigator -Pace Counter What is the tactical Task assigned? (See Appendix C, MCDP 1-0.) When is the Task to be executed? Where is the Task to be executed? Why is the Task to be executed? D. Brief the Coordinating Instructions: What is the timeline? What are the priorities of work? How do they fit the timeline? What is the priority of rehearsals? How do they fit? What is the lost Marine plan by stage? What is the Base Unit? What are all the Tactical Control Measures? What is the no-communications plan by stage? What is the required MOPP level for the operation? What are the Rules of Engagement for the operation? What are the Go/No-Go criteria? What are the Abort criteria? Are there any CCIR’s from higher? Have you scheduled a weapons test-fire? What are the Immediate Actions? -Enemy contact -Linear Danger Area -Cross-Compartmental Danger Area -Load ambush site -Break contact -CasEvac 30 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix B (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Platoon Operations (Continued) IV Administration and Logistics A. Brief any Administration information: How many Marines are present? Where shall all WIA’s be collected? By phase? Where shall all KIA’s be collected? By phase? Where shall EPW’s be collected? By phase? Where is the Corpsman’s location? What is the CasEvac Plan? B. Brief any Logistics information not outlined in the Warning Order: How much ammunition is required? What pyro is allotted to the unit? When shall logistics requirements be requested? How much chow is required? How much water is required? What night vision assets are required? What long-range vision assets are required? What is the resupply plan? Who has priority? What are the transportation capabilities? V Command and Signal A. Brief any Signal information: What are the frequencies for the operation? Where is the CEOI located? What is the primary Challenge/Password? Alternate? What is the Running Password? What is the Signal Plan? Primary signals? Alternate? Are the signals original? Appropriate? Redundant? What are the Hand/Arm Signals to be used? B. Brief the required Command information: (1) What is the Location of Key Personnel? Where is the Platoon Commander located? Where is the Platoon Sergeant located? Where are the Squad Leaders? Where is the Guide? Where is the Corpsman? Where is the Radio/Telephone Operator located? 31 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix B (Continued) Five-Paragraph Order Format for Offensive Platoon Operations V Command and Signal (Continued) (2) What is the Succession of Command? Who is designated to assume command if the Platoon Commander is gone? (Note: Command designation is often dependent upon geographic location rather than seniority. For instance, if a Platoon Commander is located with the ME squad and assigns his Platoon Sergeant to be with a SE squad at a SBF position, the ME squad leader may be best positioned to assume command rather than the Platoon Sergeant. Once the attack is complete, the Platoon Sergeant could assume command.) 32 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C Example of a Platoon Offense Order General Situation. The student will be acting as 1st Squad Leader, 1st Platoon, Company E, BLT 2/2, 24th MEU, IIMEF in support of Operation Jungle Fury, 3-02. Two weeks ago, the 24th MEU conducted an unopposed amphibious landing on the coast of Centralia in support of the Centralian government’s request for military assistance against ongoing CRF activity. Upon initial insert, the MEU established several Logistics Staging Areas (LSA’s) vic of Camp Rommel (255 496). For the last several days, BLT 2/2 has been attacking north to destroy the CRF combat power within the Bn Area of Operations (AO). Company E is currently on the left flank of the BLT. It is believed that the CRF forces within the assigned company AO are currently conducting resupply and reinforcement for their dispersed units. 1st Platoon is on the left flank of Company E. 1st Platoon is currently located at the Company Assembly Area (Co AA). Orientation. North is as depicted. The platoon’s assigned area of operations is bordered by the 55-Northing to the North, Route Grant to the East, Route Eisenhower to the South, and the 20-Easting to the West. There are several tactical control measures within the platoon area of operation: Co AA (231 502), PIt Atk Pos (226 507), the LD (stream running N-S vic 51-Northing), SRP (2210 5095), Plt(-) Aslt Pos (227 528), Hill 355/Co Obj C (229 520), and Hill 310/PIt Obj 1 (215 520). There are several pieces of terrain within the assigned area of operations: Hill 210, Hill 390, Hill 230, Hill 280, Hill 265, West Creek, and East Creek. One pertinent tactical control measure that does not lie within the platoon zone of action is Co Obj A (258 550); Co Obj A approximately three and a half kilometers to the NE. According to map reconnaissance, there are two potential LZ’s within the platoon area of operations: LZ Magpie (227 531) and LZ Condor (211 528). The terrain is comprised of rolling hills, compartmentalized fingers and sloping draws. Many intermittent streams exist within the AO, however they are dependent upon precipitation and seasonal weather patterns. The vegetation is made up of primarily medium-growth deciduous trees, sporadic coniferous representation, low scrub brush, and frequent patches of dense new growth and low-lying vines. Visibility is limited to 400-500m from the high ground and 100-200m in the low ground. Visibility within the densely wooded areas (especially the dense draws along the stream) seldom exceeds 50m. Dismounted infantry movement is unrestricted throughout the platoon AO. Wheeled and tracked vehicle traffic is unrestricted on the improved road surfaces (Routes Grant and Eisenhower) and severely restricted off of the improved road surfaces. The high temperatures will be around the low 60’s over the next three days, with lows heading down to the upper 30’s. The weather is currently sunny and clear, however there is a 70% chance of precipitation within then next three to five hours. Illumination will be below 10% between dusk and 2330, after which illumination will increase to 65-70%. 33 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) Example of a Platoon Offense Order (Continued) I Situation A. Enemy Situation 1. Enemy Forces (SALUTE) A CRF plt(-) is known to be operating vic Co Obj A. Last night at 2000, a CRF sqd(+) was observed preparing fighting positions on Co Obj C. The CRF was observed with Soviet-era small arms and equipment. From knowledge of the enemy gained over the past two weeks, the CRF has limited 82mm indirect fire capability and very limited communications equipment. The CRF are wearing desert-pattern utilities. 2. Enemy Capabilities and Limitations (DRAW-D) The EN CRF sqd(+) is capable of conducting a withdrawal from his established positions to conduct link-up with other elements of the CRF forces within the area of operations. The CRF sqd(+) can also be reinforced by and reinforce adjacent positions. It is believed that the EN has limited capability to attack or defend for a sustained period of time, due to the assessment that the EN is believed to be conducting resupply operations. 3. Enemy’s Most Probable Course Of Action (EMPCOA) The EN CRF sqd(+) on Co Obj C is oriented SE. The EN CRF sqd(+) has at least two RPK machine guns, one of which is oriented SE along Route Grant and another which is oriented S. On contact, the sqd(+) on Co Obj C will initially attempt to delay our advance. After determining the situation untenable, the EN sqd(+) will then withdraw via the most covered and concealed route to warn and reinforce the plt(-) vic Co Obj A. The EN CRF sqd(+) is expected to have LP/OP’s vic of the EN positions. B. Friendly Situation 1. Higher’s Mission and Intent. At 1200, Company E destroys the EN CRF plt(-) on Co Obj A lOT prevent the EN from interfering with the Bn ME (Company F) attack on Bn Obj 1. The company commander’s desired Endstate is that no EN forces within the company area of operations interfere with the Bn ME attack on Bn Obj 1. 2. Adjacent Units a. East- At 1200, Co E(-) destroys the EN plt(-) vic Co Obj A lOT prevent the EN forces from interfering with the Bn ME (Company F) attack on Bn Obj 1. b. South- Elements of the 24th MEU MCLB have established LSA’s vic Camp Rommel. Wpns Co, BLT 2/2 is conducting vehicular patrols of the MSR/ASR network within the 24th MEU Area of Operations, including Route Eisenhower. c. West- No friendly units are currently operating to the West. d. North- No friendly units are currently operating to the North. 34 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) 3. Supporting Units a. Company 60mm mortars are located in the Co AA (230 502). They are in GS of all platoons; POF is 1, 3, 2. b. B 1/10 is located vic Camp Fabius (309 389) and is in GS of BLT 2/2. POF is F, E, G. c. Bn 81mm mortars are located in a Mortar Firing Position (MFP) vic Camp Rommel (255 496). The platoon is in GS of the BLT. POF is E, F, G. C. Attachments/detachments. None. II Mission. We are SE2. At 1200, 1st Platoon destroys the EN CRF forces on Co Obj C lOT prevent the EN from interfering with Company E ME attack on Co Obj A. O/S, displace by unit via the most direct route to Co Obj A lOT conduct link-up with Company E(-). III Execution A. Commander’s Intent. The EN’s CG is the existence of the prepared defensive fighting positions. The CV is the inability to provide mutual support for the dispersed defensive positions. 1st Platoon will exploit this CV by rapidly attacking the EN CRF positions lOT deny EN forces the ability to mutually support one another. The desired end state is to prevent the EN forces from interfering with the Company ME attack on Co Obj A. B. Concept of Operations. 1. Scheme of Maneuver. 1st Platoon will have one squad as the ME and two squads as SE1 and SE2. 1st Platoon will conduct a flanking attack on Co Obj C with three squads online. The direction of attack is north. 1st Platoon will depart the Co AA in a platoon column (SE1-MESE2) and move to the PIt Atk Pos where we will request permission to cross the LD. Upon crossing the LD, the platoon will continue movement to the Plt Aslt Pos in a platoon column (SE1-ME-SE2). The route of movement will be to cross East Creek, move along the west side of Hill 280, pass between Hill 280 and Hill 390 and occupy the Plt Aslt Pos from SW to NE. O/O, the platoon will transition to a platoon online, oriented SE. Once the platoon has occupied the Aslt Pos, I will initiate (2) minutes of suppression from the Co 60m mortars on Co Obj C. As the indirect fires lift, we will assault through Co Obj C from NW to SE with three squads on line. Upon assaulting through the objective (on my command), the platoon will establish a hasty 180 oriented SE. SE1 will have from 9 o’clock to 11 o’clock, the ME will have from 11 o’clock to 1 o’clock, and SE2 will have from 1 o’clock to 3 o’clock. O/S, the platoon will consolidate on Co Obj C, oriented E. 35 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) SE1 will have from 6 o’clock to 10 o’clock, the ME will have from 10 o’clock to 2 o’clock and SE2 will have from 2 o’clock to 6 o’clock. O/S, 1st Platoon will displace by unit via the most direct route to Co Obj A. I have already conducted cross-boundary coordination with the Company Commander regarding the potential fires crossing Route Grant. 2. Fire Support Plan. The purpose of my fire support plan is to suppress the EN CRF forces on Co Obj C lOT allow the plt(-) to close within direct fire weapons range of the EN position. There are two pre-planned targets for the operation: Target Number Location Kn Def Pos YF 1012 Co Obj C / 230 524 HE/Q Susp LP/OP YF 1020 Hill 280 / 225 516 Shell/Fuse Obs Agency HE/Q SL Co 60’s SL Co 60’s C. Tasks 1. 1st Squad. You are the Platoon ME. At 1200, destroy the center 1/3 of the EN CRF sqd(+) on Co Obj C lOT prevent the EN forces from interfering with the Company E ME atk on Co Obj A. BPT continue the attack to the North. 2. 2nd Squad. You are the SE1. At 1200, destroy the left 1/3 of the EN CRF sqd(+)on Co Obj C lOT prevent the EN forces from interfering with the Company E ME atk on Co Obj A. Identify four Marines to assume the duties of an Aid and Litter Team to assist in extraction of any casualties. BPT assume the mission of the platoon ME. BPT continue the attack to the North. 3. 3rd Squad. You are the SE2. At 1200, destroy the right 1/3 of the EN CRF sqd(+)on Co Obj C lOT prevent the EN forces from interfering with the Company E ME atk on Co Obj A. Identify four Marines to assume the role of a Search and EPW Team to process and safeguard any detained EPW’s. BPT assume the mission of the platoon ME. BPT continue the attack to the North. 4. Platoon Sergeant. Ensure that each Marine draws chow, water, communication assets, ammunition, and any other equipment as per Paragraph IV and V. Upon consolidation, establish a Casualty Collection Point (CCP) and assume the role as the POC for any casualties and coordinate their extraction via the Co GySgt. 5. Platoon Guide. Supervise the platoon rehearsals as per the Coordinating Instructions. Upon consolidation, assume the role as the POC for any EPW’s and coordinate their extraction lAW the 5 S’s and T. 36 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) D. Coordinating Instructions 1. Timeline 0800 Squad leaders conduct back-briefs confirming the SOM, FSP, signal plan and other critical information. Marines draw ammunition, chow, water, comm. assets, and any other logistics needs. 0845 Initial inspections by the squad leaders. 0900 Squad leaders’ time (orders, squad rehearsals, etc.). 1000 Platoon rehearsals (see priorities of rehearsals) 1100 Final inspections (Plt Sgt and PIt Commander) 1120 Movement from Co AA to PIt Atk Pos. Request permission to cross the LD. 1200 1st Platoon crosses the LD. 2. Priority of Rehearsals a. Actions on objective b. Changing formations on the move c. Communications rehearsals d. Actions upon consolidation 3. Lost Marine Plan a. Co AA — LD. If a Marine becomes separated from the platoon between the Co AA and the LD, the lost Marine will return to the last identified rally point and wait for (30) minutes. After (30) minutes have passed, the Marine will orient themselves to the terrain and head south to the improved surface road (Route Eisenhower). Once at the improved surface road, the Marine will turn left and, remaining in the treeline on the north side of Route Eisenhower, proceed to the Co AA. When challenged, the lost Marine will execute the near/far recognition signal as per company SOP. Once inside the Co AA, the Marine will report to the Co 1st Sgt at the Co AA. b. LD — Platoon Aslt Pos. If a Marine becomes separated from the platoon between the LD and the PIt(-) AsIt Pos, the lost Marine will orient themselves to the terrain and head south until he meets West Creek. The lost Marine will not cross West Creek, and will instead move south in trace of the creek until he arrives at the junction of East and West Creeks. Once at the junction, the lost Marine will wait for (1) hour. After (1) hour has passed, the Marine will orient themselves to the terrain using the location of the sun as a primary guiding feature and head south (crossing East Creek) to the improved surface road (Route Eisenhower). Once at the improved surface road, the Marine will turn left and, remaining in the treeline on the north side of Route Eisenhower, proceed to the Co AA. When challenged, the lost Marine will execute the near/far recognition signal as per company SOP. Once inside the Co AA, the Marine will report to the Co 1st Sgt at the Co CP. 37 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) c. PIatoon AsIt Pos — Co Obj C. If a Marine becomes separated from the platoon between the Plt(-) AsIt Pos and Co Obj C, the lost Marine will retrace their steps to the AsIt Pos and wait there for (1) hour. After (1) hour, if the lost Marine has not seen the appropriate consolidation signal (YSMK), he will orient himself to the terrain and head south until he meets West Creek. The lost Marine will not cross West Creek, and will instead move south in trace of the creek until he arrives at the junction of East and West Creeks. Once at the junction, the lost Marine will wait for (1) hour. After (1) hour has passed, the Marine will orient themselves to the terrain and head south (crossing East Creek) to the improved surface road (Route Eisenhower). Once at the improved surface road, the Marine will turn left and, remaining in the treeline on the north side of Route Eisenhower, proceed to the Co AA. When challenged, the lost Marine will execute the near/far recognition signal as per company SOP. Once inside the Co AA, the Marine will report to the Co CP and check in with the Co 1st Sgt. 4. No Comm Plan. If communication capability is lost at any time, we will continue the operation while still attempting to regain communication. Upon occupation of the Platoon AsIt Pos, if communications have not been restored, we will conduct the attack without any indirect fires. Upon platoon consolidation on Co Obj C, we will establish communication and conduct link-up with Company E(-) via other means (messenger). 5. Weapons Test Fire. Test fires are unauthorized for this operation. 6. Base Unit. The base unit for the plt(-) attack will be 1st Squad (ME). IV Administration and Logistics A. Administration 1. EPW’s. All EPW’s will be treated lAW the 5 S’s and a T; (Search, Silence, Secure, Segregate, Speed to the rear and Tagged). The Platoon Guide will be the POC for coordinating extraction of all EPW’s to the BN S-4 located at the COC(rear). Immediately upon initial EPW detention, contact the Platoon Guide over the PIt Tac Net. Upon consolidation at Co Obj C, all EPW’s should be brought to the Platoon Guide located at the 3 o’clock position (12 o’clock is E). The Platoon Guide will coordinate EPW extraction via the Co GySgt and the Bn S-4. 2. WIA/KIA. If any urgent or priority casualties are sustained, all unit leaders will immediately notify the platoon commander over the PIt Tac Net. The Platoon Sergeant will coordinate all extraction of casualties from the platoon AO via the Co GySgt or the Bn S-3. If casualties are sustained between the Co AA and the LD, the unit leader will make the decision to detach an Aid and Litter Team to extract the casualty from the zone of action and conduct link-up with the Weapons Company vehicular patrols along Route Eisenhower. 38 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) Any urgent casualties sustained between the LD and the PIt(-) AsIt Pos will be extracted either along Route Eisenhower, from LZ Magpie (227 531), or from other feasible LZ’s as determined during movement. Any urgent casualties sustained between the Plt(-) AsIt Pos and Co Obj C will be collected at the Plt(-) AsIt Pos until Co Obj C is determined to be secure. Once Co Obj C has been secured, the Casualty Collection Point (CCP) will be established at the 6 o’clock position. The point of contact for all casualties will be the Platoon Corpsman. The Platoon Corpsman will triage the WIA and treat as required prior to evacuation. Urgent and priority casualties will be coordinated through the company and will be conducted by air from the most tenable LZ vic Co Obj C. If we have no communications capability and sustain urgent casualties, O/O the designated Aid and Litter team will transport the casualty via the most direct route to Route Eisenhower. Upon reaching the road, the A&L team will alert passing Weapons Company patrols to our location and our request for medevac via violet smoke. Upon visual confirmation of a passing Weapons Company patrol, we will conduct near/far recognition and evacuate the casualty to the Bn BAS located vic Camp Rommel. In the case that no Weapons Company patrol is in the area, the A&L team will continue movement E along the N side of Route Eisenhower until they reach the Co AA. At the Co AA, they shall immediately bring the casualty to the Co Corpsman for follow-on treatment and check in with the Co 1st Sgt. B. Logistics. 1. Ammunition. All Marines will have a standard fighting load before stepping off from the Co AA: (8) magazines 5.56mm for all M16 service rifles and (3) drums 5.56 link per SAW. In addition, all M203 grenade launchers will have (3) HEDP and (3) ILA 40mm rounds. 2. Chow. All Marines will step off from the AA with (2) DOS chow. 3. Water. All Marines will step off from the AA with (2) full canteens and (1) full camelback. 4. Communications. Each squad will draw one (1) PRC 119, each with two batteries. 5. Pole-less litters. Each fire team will have (1) pole-less litter. 6. Flex cuffs. Each fire team will have (3) pairs of flex cuffs for any detained EPW’s. 7. Pyro. All squads must draw (3) RSC, (3) GSP, (3) YSMK, (3) GSMK and (3) WSC. 8. Resupply. The PIt Sgt will coordinate resupply upon consolidation on Co Obj C. 39 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) V Command and Signal A. Signal 1. Signal Plan Event Primary Alternate Tertiary Transition online (AsltPos) H/A Messenger None Initiate suppression Radio None None Co Obj C secure Radio GSP None Cease fire WSC Voice H/A Hasty 180 Voice Hand/Arm Messenger Consolidate YSmk Voice Hand/Arm 1st Platoon Displacement Radio Messenger None 2. Frequencies and Callsigns Unit Callsign Frequency Company Tac Godfather 112 Company Mortars Godfather Mortars 112 1 Platoon Tac Cannibal 310 2 Platoon Tac Reaper 315 Wpns Co Tac CAAT Red 150 BN Mortars Saipan Mortars 200 Bravo, 1/10 Brimstone 176 3. Challenge and Password Primary: Spider/Castle Alternate: Numbers adding up to 9 Running: Cookie Jar 4. Location of the CEOI. All CEOI’s shall be retained in the right shoulder pocket by the Platoon Commander, Platoon Sergeant, all squad leaders, the Plt Guide, and the Plt RTO. 5. Reports. The Plt RTO, Plt Sgt, Plt Guide, and all squad leaders are required to have copies of all required reporting formats at all times. a. SALUTE Report Line 1 Size Line 2 Activity Line 3 Location Line 4 Unit Line 5 Time Line 6 Equipment Line 7 Notes 40 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) b. 9-Line Medevac Request Line 1 Location of pick-up site Line 2 Radio frequency, callsign Line 3 Number of patients by precedence __(a) Urgent __(c) Priority __(d) Routine Line 4 Special Equipment __(a) None __(b) Hoist __(c) Extract equip. __(d) Ventilator Line 5 No. of Patients (by type) __(l) litter __(a) ambulatory Line 6 Security of pickup site (n) no EN (p) possible EN (e) EN in area (x) EN/escort req. Line 7 Method of marking (a) panels (b) pyro (c) smoke (d) none (e) other Line 8 Patient nationality/status (a) US mil (b) US civ (c) Non-US mil (d) Non-US civ (e) EPW Line 9 NBCR (n) nuclear (b) biological (c) chemical (r) radioactive c. Personnel, Equipment, Weapons Accountability (PEWAC) Line 1 Callsign Line 2 Time Line 3 Grid location Line 4 Number of students in the field Line 5 Number of students in the rear Line 6 M16 Line 7 M203 Line 8 M249 Line 9 M240G Line 10 NVG’s Line 11 Binoculars Line 12 PRC 119 d. Daily Logistics Summary (LogSum) Line 1 Callsign Line 2 Time Line 3 Grid location Line 4 Water (1 qt canteens per Marine) Line 5 5.56mm blank (loose) Line 6 5.56mm blank (link) Line 7 7.62mm blank (link) Line 8 Smoke/Pyro (all colors) 41 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) B. Command 1. Location of Key Leaders. I will travel with 1st Squad (ME). The Platoon Sergeant and Platoon Guide will travel with 2nd Squad (SE 1). Upon consolidation, I will be in the Platoon CP in the center of the position. The Platoon Sergeant and the Platoon Corpsman will be at the 6 o’clock position. The Platoon Guide will be at the 3 o’clock position. The Company CO will be located with the Company E(-) ME vic Co Obj A. The Co GySgt is located at the Co AA. 2. Succession of Command. 1st Squad Leader, Platoon Sergeant, Platoon Guide, 2nd Squad Leader, 3rd Squad Leader The time is now 0800. Are there any questions? 42 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix C (Continued) Plt Offense Order Map 43 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D Example of a Platoon (Rein) Defense Order General Situation. This defensive order was created by the 1st Platoon commander, Company E, BLT 2/2, 24th MEU, IIMEF in support of Operation Jungle Fury, 3-02. Two weeks ago, the 24th MEU conducted an unopposed amphibious landing on the coast of Centralia in support of the Centralian government’s request for military assistance against ongoing Centralian Revolutionary Force (CRF) activity. Upon initial insert, the MEU established several Logistics Staging Areas (LSA’s) vic of Camp Rommel (255 496). For the last several days, BLT 2/2 has been attacking north to destroy the CRF combat power within the Bn Area of Operations (AO). Within the last twenty-four hours, 1st Platoon secured Co Obj C and Plt Obj 1 as depicted within the platoon area of operations. However, it is suspected that the CRF is preparing to mount a counterattack on the Co AA (230 502). The platoon is currently located vic Hill 390. Orientation. North is as depicted. The platoon’s assigned area of operations is bordered by the 55-Northing to the North, the 25-Easting to the East, Route Eisenhower to the South, and the 22-Easting to the West. There are several pieces of terrain within the assigned area of operations: Hill 390, Hill 250, Hill 280, Hill 265, Hill 320, West Creek, and East Creek. According to map reconnaissance, there are two potential LZ’s within the platoon area of operations: LZ Magpie (227 531) and LZ Bluebird (239 519). The terrain is comprised of rolling hills, compartmentalized fingers and sloping draws. Many intermittent streams exist within the AO, however they are dependent upon precipitation and seasonal weather patterns. The vegetation is made up of primarily medium-growth deciduous trees, sporadic coniferous representation, low scrub brush, and frequent patches of dense new growth and low-lying vines. Visibility, although seasonally-dependent, is limited to 400-500m from the high ground and 100-200m in the low ground. Visibility within the densely wooded areas (especially the dense draws along the stream) seldom exceeds 50m. Dismounted infantry movement is unrestricted throughout the platoon AO. Wheeled and tracked vehicle traffic is unrestricted on the improved road surfaces (Routes Grant and Eisenhower) and severely restricted off of the improved road surfaces. The high temperatures will be around the low 60’s over the next three days, with lows heading down to the upper 30’s. The weather is currently sunny and clear, however there is a 70% chance of precipitation within then next three to five hours. Sunrise was at 0627 and sunset will be at 2016. Illumination will be below 10% between dusk and 2330, after which illumination will increase to 65-70%. I Situation A. Enemy Situation 1. Enemy Forces (SALUTE) Over the past twenty-four hours, a CRF Co(-) has been conducting infiltration into the company’s area of operations from the north. The CRF was observed with Soviet-era small arms and equipment. From knowledge of the enemy gained over the past two weeks, the CRF has limited 82mm indirect fire capability and very limited communications equipment. The CRF are wearing desert-pattern utilities. 44 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) 2. Enemy Capabilities and Limitations (DRAW-D) The EN CRF Co(-) is capable of conducting an attack on any of the various BLT positions. The CRF Co(-) is not capable of rapid reinforcement, but can establish hasty defensive positions and delay the BN’s advance to the north. The CRF is also capable of conducting limited night operations. 3. Enemy’s Most Probable Course Of Action (EMPCOA) The EN CRF Co(-) is advancing south, most likely using Route Grant as a guiding feature. The CRF Co(-) will attack the CoAA IOT seize control of Route Eisenhower. The EN CRF Co(-) will move south along the west side of Route Grant and attack the CoAA NLT 0630 tomorrow morning. B. Friendly Situation 1. Higher’s Mission and Intent. NLT 0500, Company E blocks the EN Co(-) advance south IOT prevent EN from establishing access to Route Eisenhower. The company commander’s desired Endstate is that the company retains the ability to conduct offensive operations within the AO while retaining usage of the CoAA. 2. Adjacent Units a. East- Elements of the BLT STA platoon are currently establishing LP/OP’s vic of an EN fuel farm (256 530). b. South- Company E(-) is currently preparing to conduct further offensive operations within the AO. Elements of the 24th MEU MCLB have established LSA’s vic Camp Rommel. Wpns Co, BLT 2/2 is conducting vehicular patrols of the MSR/ASR network within the 24th MEU Area of Operations, including Route Eisenhower. c. West- No friendly units are currently operating to the West. d. North- No friendly units are currently operating to the North. 3. Supporting Units a. Company 60mm mortars are located in the Co AA (231 502). They are in DS of 1st platoon. 1st Platoon has (1) FPF. b. B 1/10 is located vic Camp Fabius (309 389) and is in GS of BLT 2/2. POF is F, E, G. c. Bn 81mm mortars are located in a Mortar Firing Position (MFP) vic Camp Rommel (255 496). The platoon is in GS of the BLT. POF is E, F, G. C. Attachments/detachments. We have (1) MG squad and (1) Assault squad attached immediately. II Mission. We are the Co ME. NLT 0500, 1st Platoon blocks the EN CRF Co(-) from advancing south along Route Grant vic Hill 355 IOT prevent EN forces from interfering with Company E(-) conduct of offensive operations within the company AO. BPT continue the attack to the North. 45 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) III Execution A. Commander’s Intent. The EN Co(-) CG is their large amount of organic combat strength. The CV is the inability to maneuver quickly through the terrain while maintaining command and control. 1st Platoon will exploit this CV by defending in depth along Route Grant and establishing a platoon battle position defense vic Hill 355. The desired end state is that the EN forces are prevented from conducting offensive operations against the CoAA. B. Concept of Operations. 1. Scheme of Maneuver. 1st Platoon will have one squad as the ME and four squads as SE1, SE2, SE3, and SE4. O/O, 1st Platoon will establish a linear defense oriented north in a platoon battle position vic Hill 355. 1st Platoon is currently vic Hill 390. We will depart our current position in a platoon tactical column (ME, SE4, SE3, SE1, SE2) and move to the Objective Rally Point (ORP, 225 519). Upon occupation of the ORP, we will establish hasty perimeter security: ME from 10 to 2, SE1 from 2 to 6, SE2 from 6 to 10. SE3 and SE4 will be located in the center of the platoon 360. O/O, 1st Platoon will detach a Leaders’ Reconnaissance element to reconnoiter the tentative defensive position vic Hill 355. The Leaders’ Reconnaissance (LR) element will consist of the Platoon Commander, the Plt Guide, the ME squad leader, MG squad leader, senior fire-team leaders from SE1 and SE2, two Marines designated as an LP/OP (to be emplaced during the LR), and two Marines for security. The LR element will have the following priorities: (1) identify/confirm the engagement area (EA), (2) confirm the location of the platoon battle position, and (3) emplace the LP/OP to gain early warning of EN movement within the platoon AO. Upon completion, the LR element will conduct link-up with platoon(-) vic the ORP, leaving the Plt Guide and (1) security Marine at the established Squad Release Point (SRP). 1st Platoon will move from the ORP to the SRP (229 519) and occupy the defensive position using the “crow’s foot” occupation method. The linear battle position (BP) will be comprised of three squad BP’s: SE1 on the left flank of the defense, the ME in the center, and SE2 on the right flank maintaining visible contact with Route Grant. Upon occupation of the squad BP’s, squad leaders shall immediately establish security within their assigned sectors of fire and proceed to accomplish the priorities of work (as detailed in the Coordinating Instructions). O/O, 1st Platoon will conduct constant security patrols to the north of the established battle position. As per the established timeline (in the Coordinating Instructions), 1st Platoon will emplace tactical, supplementary, and protective wire in addition to (16) claymore mines as the security plan. 46 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) Trip flares, flash-bangs, and other early warning devices will be emplaced IOT provide early warning of EN advance into the EA. Upon the EN advance south along Route Grant, they will be canalized into the EA (230 527) and delayed by the obstacle plan. I will call for indirect fires from the Co 60mm mortars (Tgt Number YF 2391) as the EN crosses the Trigger Line Green (528-northing). Due to the 55-second time-of-flight for the mortar rounds, they should impact within the EA as the EN begins to cross the Trigger Line Blue (526-northing). As the EN crosses Trigger Line Blue, the MG squad will engage EN targets of opportunity within the assigned sector of fire in accordance with target precedence. O/O, the Plt Guide will commit the LEU as directed to occupy supplementary positions or to conduct a counterattack. O/S, the platoon will cease fires. Immediately upon ceasing fires, the squad leaders will send ACE reports to the Plt Sgt. 2. Fire Support Plan. The purpose of my fire support plan is to neutralize the EN CRF Co(-) in the engagement area lOT prevent the CRF from conducting offensive operations against the Co AA. I have planned three targets for the operation: Target Number Location Shell/Fuse Obs Agency Likely EN location/Engagement Area YF 2391 230 527 HE/Q Plt Comm Co 60’s Susp EN Avenue of Approach YF 1476 230 532 Illum Patrol B 1/10 Final Protective Fires (FPF) YF 2395 230 524, L 90m, Att 2000 HE/Delay Plt Comm Co 60’s 3. Obstacle Plan. The purpose of my obstacle plan is to block the EN CRF Co(-) IOT allow the massing of our direct fire weapons within the established engagement area. I plan to accomplish this by reinforcing existing natural obstacles such as the stream and dense vegetation. Obstacle Purpose No. Location Attitude Size Emplacing Unit st X + 2h st X + 2h st X + 2h Doublestrand Tactical Wire Fix 1A 228 528 2000 400m 1 Platoon Doublestrand Tactical Wire Turn 1B 231 526 1000 400m 1 Platoon Protective Wire Block 1C 230 524 1700 300m 1 Platoon 47 NLT Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) C. Tasks 1. 1st Squad. You are the Platoon ME. NLT 0500, destroy the EN CRF Co(-) vic of your assigned sector of fire within the EA IOT prevent EN from conducting offensive operations against the Co AA. Establish a squad BP in the center 1/3 of the platoon linear battle position. BPT displace to alternate positions. 2. 2nd Squad. You are the SE1. NLT 0500, destroy the EN CRF Co(-) vic of your assigned sector of fire within the EA IOT prevent EN from conducting offensive operations against the Co AA. Establish a squad BP in the left 1/3 of the platoon linear battle position. Identify four Marines to assume the duties of an Aid and Litter Team to assist in extraction of any casualties. Identify four Marines to assume the role of a Search and EPW Team to process and safeguard any detained EPW’s. BPT displace to alternate and/or supplementary positions. 3. 3rd Squad. You are the SE2. NLT 0500, destroy the EN CRF Co(-) vic of your assigned sector of fire within the EA IOT prevent EN from conducting offensive operations against the Co AA. Establish a squad BP in the right 1/3 of the platoon linear battle position. Ensure that you are visibly tied in with Route Grant. You have the Assault Squad in DS of your mission. Coordinate with the Assault Squad Leader to integrate them into your squad battle position. Upon occupation, identify four Marines to initiate the platoon patrolling efforts and have them report to the Platoon Guide vic the platoon CP. BPT displace to alternate and/or supplementary positions. 4. Machine Gun Squad. You are the SE3. O/O, destroy the EN CRF Co(-) within the EA IOT prevent the EN from conducting offensive operations against the Co AA. Establish two MG fighting positions vic of the 1st Squad (ME) BP. Establish an FPL along the frontage of the platoon battle position and complete the range cards as per the timeline. Be sure to retain (1) range card with each weapon system. Engagement Criteria: squad-size or larger CRF element. Target Precedence: CRF squad-sized formations, identified key CRF leadership, identified CRF communication assets. Establish a trigger line vic the 526-northing. Save 200 rounds for the FPL. O/S, fire the FPL. Notify the Plt Sgt if you need a resupply of ammunition. 5. Assault Squad. You are SE4. You are in DS of 3rd Squad. O/O, destroy targets of opportunity within your sector of fire IOT prevent EN advance S along Route Grant. NLT 0500, establish a fighting position ISO your sector of fire. Designate hot and cold positions. Establish a PDF oriented N along Route Grant. Target precedence: light-skinned vehicles, CSW, command and control assets. Engagement criteria: engage in accordance with target precedence as EN crosses Trigger Line Blue. BPT displace to supplementary positions and establish a PDF to support a supplementary mission. BPT displace to alternate positions. 48 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) 6. Platoon Sergeant. Ensure that each Marine has the required chow, water, communication assets, ammunition, and any other equipment as per Paragraph IV and V. Supervise the final inspections prior to the platoon movement to the ORP. Report any discrepancies to me ASAP. In the ORP, establish and maintain perimeter security. Upon occupation, assume the role as the POC for any casualties and coordinate their extraction via the Co GySgt. Establish a Casualty Collection Point (CCP) 50m S of the platoon CP. Supervise implementation of the priorities of work and ensure that the timeline is accomplished. Coordinate with the Co GySgt for logistics resupply as required. Identify personnel as required to man the LP/OP and the FT-sized patrol. 7. Platoon Guide. Accompany the LR and establish a SRP. Maintain security until the platoon arrives at the SRP, at which time you will direct the squads to their respective fire-team release points. Upon occupation, ensure a terrain model is built vic the platoon CP and supervise the preparation of the initial security patrol. Upon identification of the LEU, ensure that the squad leader is conducting rehearsals of the occupation of the supplementary positions. Upon EN contact, BPT commit the LEU as directed by the Platoon Commander. Assume the role as the POC for any EPW’s and coordinate their extraction to the Co AA lAW the 5 S’s and T and through the Co 1stSgt. 8. LP/OP personnel. The 2-man LP/OP manning obligation will be rotated among squads, thus each Marine must be familiar with the task. O/O, establish an LP/OP vic 228 532 IOT provide early warning of EN activity within the platoon AO. Establish a concealed position providing the best observation of likely EN avenues of approach. Report any suspected or observed EN activity. Do not engage EN with direct fire weapons unless you are engaged first. Emplace (2) Claymore mines ISO your position. However, do not engage with them unless EN contact is imminent and only do so IOT provide standoff while you break contact and withdraw along an identified route back to the platoon defense. Create and improve a terrain sketch from your position that indicates surrounding terrain with direction (in mils) and distance (in meters) to various TRP’s. Use this terrain sketch to call for fire on EN troop movements within the AO, provided you can maintain a concealed position while doing so. Ensure that you conduct radio checks with the Plt CP every 30min via the Plt Tac Net. Ensure that you have at least (1) fresh battery at all times. 49 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) 9. Patrol personnel. The constant FT-sized patrolling effort north of our platoon battle position will be rotated among squads, thus each Marine must be familiar with the task. O/O, conduct security patrols north of the platoon BP IOT provide early warning of EN activity within the platoon AO. Report any suspected or observed EN activity to the platoon CP. BPT call for indirect fires from the BN 81mm mortar section during conduct of the patrol IOT disrupt EN formations and suspected Leaders Reconnaissance elements. Do not engage EN with direct fire weapons unless you are engaged first, in which case immediately break contact to a covered and concealed position. BPT link up with the LP/OP on each patrol. 10. Least Engaged Unit (LEU). Upon occupation of the platoon defense, a LEU will be identified to (O/S) occupy designated supplementary positions. O/S, displace from your primary squad battle position and occupy the designated supplementary positions as directed by the Plt Guide or designate. BPT conduct a counterattack as directed by the Platoon Commander. Conduct rehearsals as needed to ensure a hasty and tactical occupation. D. Coordinating Instructions 1. Timeline 1000 Platoon order issue 1115 Squad leader’s time (orders, rehearsals, draw ammunition, water, chow, batteries, initial inspections, pre-combat checks, etc.) 1200 Platoon commander backbrief with Co CO/Artillery FO (Fire Support planning, COC coordination, etc.) 1300 Final inspections (Plt Sgt, Plt Commander) 1330 Platoon movement to ORP 1400 Platoon arrives at ORP/LR departs X Occupation of defensive position X + 20 -Sector stakes emplaced; -Fire team Fire Plan Sketches (FPS) submitted to squad leaders; -MG FPL identified by Platoon Commander; -Identified patrol personnel report to Plt CP for brief; -Terrain model constructed vic Plt CP X + 40 -Squad FPS submitted to Platoon Commander; -MG range cards submitted to Platoon Commander; -Fields of fire cleared; -1st Patrol departs friendly lines; -Revised FPF submitted to 60mm mortars X + 60 -Sector bags emplaced; -Skirmishers trenches completed; -Revised List of Targets submitted to Company FO; -Supplementary positions identified by Plt Comm 50 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) X + 90 -(8) Claymore mines emplaced: (2) per sqd BP; -Sector stakes/fields of fire/skirmishers trenches completed in supplementary positions; -Least Engaged Unit (LEU) identified -TA-3/12 field telephones emplaced within Plt BP X + 120/2h -Tactical, supplementary, & protective wire emplaced; -1st Patrol returns/conducts debrief with Plt Comm and Plt Guide; -LEU sqd ldr backbriefs the Plt Comm and Guide on the supplementary position occupation plan X + 2:15h -2nd patrol identified/reports to Plt CP for brief X + 2:30h -ME 2-man fighting positions completed; -(6) Claymore mines emplaced vic supp positions; -2nd patrol departs friendly lines to relieve LP/OP X + 3:45h -SE1 and SE2 2-man fighting positions completed; stand-to (sunset) -TA-3/12 field telephone emplaced in LP/OP 2. Priority of Rehearsals a. Crow’s foot occupation b. Sector stakes/sector bags c. Fire plan sketches d. Claymore mine emplacement 3. Lost Marine Plan a. Hill 390 – ORP. If a Marine becomes separated from the platoon between Hill 390 and the ORP, the lost Marine will remain stationary for (30) minutes. After (30) minutes have passed, the Marine will orient himself to the terrain and proceed due west (through the draw between Hills 390 and 280). After moving west for approximately 700m, the Marine will encounter West Creek. Once at West Creek, the Marine will turn left and follow the water flow downstream passing the intersection of West Creek merging with East Creek, until the Marine has eyes-on Route Eisenhower. The Marine will remain in the treeline north of the hardball road and turn left, heading East to the Co AA. When challenged, the lost Marine will execute the near/far recognition signal as per company SOP. Once inside the Co AA, the Marine will report to the Co CP and check in with the Co 1st Sgt. b. ORP — Plt BP. If a Marine becomes separated from the platoon between the ORP and the Plt BP, the lost Marine will return to the ORP and remain there for (1) hour. After (1) hour, the Marine will orient himself to the terrain using the location of Hill 280 to his west as a primary guiding feature and head south until he meets East Creek. The lost Marine will cross East Creek and move south in trace of the creek until he encounters the improved surface road (Route Eisenhower). 51 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) Once at the improved surface road, the Marine will turn left and, remaining in the treeline on the north side of Route Eisenhower, proceed to the Co AA. When challenged, the lost Marine will execute the near/far recognition signal as per company SOP. Once inside the Co AA, the Marine will report to the Co CP and check in with the Co 1st Sgt. c. Security Patrol. The designated patrol leader is responsible for establishing and briefing a lost Marine plan to the patrol prior to the patrol departing friendly lines. 4. No Comm Plan. If communication capability is lost at any time, we will continue the operation while still attempting to regain communication with the Co CP. Upon occupation of the Plt BP, if communications have not been restored, I will send a messenger via FT-sized patrol to the Co AA to establish communication and further troubleshoot the problem. 5. Weapons Test Fire. Test fires are unauthorized for this operation. 6. Conduct of the patrol. The Plt Sgt will designate one Marine as the Patrol Leader. The PL will report to the Platoon CP for a patrol brief at which either myself or the Plt Guide will assign specific CCIR’s or reconnaissance tasks for the specific patrol. The PL will issue a hasty patrol order to the assembled patrol at the established terrain model vic Plt CP. The Plt Guide will escort the patrol out through the designated passage lane and the PL will lead the patrol through the briefed route. The patrol will maintain constant radio communication with the Plt CP and always carry (1) fresh PRC-119 battery. All Marines on patrol will ensure that they have (1) set of operational NVD’s during the conduct of patrol. Upon completion of the patrol, the PL will coordinate with the Plt Guide and move to the Contact Point and conduct link-up. The Guide will lead the patrol into the platoon BP through the passage lane and the PL will ensure accountability before reporting to the Platoon Commander. Immediately following each patrol, the entire patrol will report to the terrain model for a debrief with the Platoon Commander or designate. 7. Tactical Control Measures a. Objective Rally Point (ORP) 225 519 b. Squad Release Point (SRP) 229 519 c. Platoon Battle Position 2295 5222 d. Passage Point 1 (PP1) 2274 5220 e. Contact Point (designated upon occupation) f. Check Point 8 (CP8) 220 525 g. Check Point 3 (CP3) 223 530 h. Check Point 12 (CP12) 2308 5281 i. Check Point 5 (CP5) 237 532 j. Check Point 19 (CP19) 239 521 k. Target Reference Point (TRP) (designated upon occupation) l. Casualty Collection Point (CCP) 50m S of the Platoon CP m. Engagement Area 230 527 52 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) n. Trigger Line Blue o. Trigger Line Green p. Co AA IV 526-northing 528-northing 231 502 Administration and Logistics A. Administration 1. EPW’s. All EPW’s will be treated lAW the 5 S’s and a T; (Search, Silence, Secure, Segregate, Speed to the rear and Tagged). The Platoon Guide will be the POC for coordinating extraction of all EPW’s to the Co 1st Sgt located at the Co AA. Immediately upon initial EPW detention, the detaining unit leader will contact the Platoon Guide over the PIt Tac Net. Through coordination between the unit leader and the Platoon Guide, the EPW’s will be turned over to the Guide (or assigned designate) vic the Plt CP. The Platoon Guide will coordinate EPW extraction via the Co 1st Sgt. 2. WIA/KIA. If any urgent or priority casualties are sustained, all unit leaders will immediately notify the platoon commander over the PIt Tac Net. The Platoon Sergeant will coordinate all extraction of casualties from the platoon AO via the Co GySgt at the Co AA. If urgent or priority casualties are sustained between Hill 390 and the ORP, I will make the decision to detach an Aid and Litter Team to extract the casualty from the platoon and conduct link-up with the Weapons Company vehicular patrols along Route Grant or with requested air medevac from an identified LZ within the platoon AO. The floating Casualty Collection Point (CCP) during movement will be the center of the platoon security perimeter. Any urgent casualties sustained between the ORP and the Plt BP will be collected at the identified Casualty Collection Point (CCP) located 50m S of the Platoon CP. The point of contact for all casualties will be the Platoon Corpsman. The Platoon Corpsman will be located with the ME at all times. The Platoon Corpsman will triage the WIA and treat as required prior to evacuation. Urgent and priority casualties will be coordinated through the company and will be conducted by air from the most tenable LZ or via ground medevac along Route Grant. If we have no communications capability and sustain urgent casualties, O/O the designated Aid and Litter team will transport the casualty via the most direct route to Route Eisenhower. Upon reaching the road, the A&L team will alert passing Weapons Company patrols to our location and our request for medevac via violet smoke. Upon visual confirmation of a passing Weapons Company patrol, we will conduct near/far recognition and evacuate the casualty to the Bn BAS located vic Camp Rommel. In case no Weapons Company patrol is in the area, the A&L team will continue movement E along the N side of Route Eisenhower until they reach the Co AA. At the Co AA, they shall immediately bring the casualty to the Company Corpsman for follow-on treatment and check in with the Co 1st Sgt. 53 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) B. Logistics. 1. Ammunition. Squad leaders will redistribute ammunition as required. Each Marine in the ME squad should have (6) magazines 5.56mm and (2) drums 5.56mm link per SAW. All ME M203 grenade launchers will have (3) HEDP rounds. Squad leaders: coordinate with the platoon sergeant and ensure that upon resupply, you replenish your Marines. 2. Chow. All Marines should have (2) DOS chow. Squad leaders: get with the Plt Sgt if your Marines are lacking. 3. Water. I know that we are down on water right now. Nonetheless, all Marines will step off from Hill 390 with at least (1) full camelback. Upon occupation, the Plt Sgt will coordinate an immediate water resupply. 4. Communications. We have (3) PRC-119’s: (1) for the Plt CP, (1) for the patrol, and (1) initially for the LP/OP. We also have (6) TA-3/12 field telephones: (1) for the LP/OP, (1) for each squad leader’s hole, and (1) for the Plt CP. Each patrol will step off with at least two fresh batteries: one for the LP/OP and one for their own use. 5. Pole-less litters. Each fire team should have (1) pole-less litter. 6. Resupply. The PIt Sgt will submit a daily Logistics Summary (LogSum) to the Co GySgt (Callsign: Godfather 7). The format for the report is included in Paragraph V. Through this report, the Plt Sgt and Co GySgt will track our resupply requirements and coordinate resupply as needed. 7. Accountability. The Plt Sgt will also be responsible for reporting accountability of all personnel and equipment to the Company Executive Officer (Callsign: Godfather 5) twice daily (0700 and 1800). The format for the Daily Status Report (DSR) is included in Paragraph V. V Command and Signal A. Signal 1. Signal Plan Event Transition of Formation Platoon arrival at ORP Leaders’ Recon departs ORP Leader’s Recon returns ORP Commence occupation Final Protective Fires Cease fires Commit Least Engaged Unit Displace to Alternate Pos Counterattack 54 Primary H/A H/A Radio Alternate Radio Radio H/A Tertiary Messenger Messenger Messenger Radio Radio RSC WSC GSC YSMK Voice Near/Far H/A TA-312 Voice TA-312 TA-312 Whistle None Messenger Voice TA-312 Voice Voice None Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) 2. Frequencies and Callsigns Unit Callsign Frequency Company Tac Godfather 112 Company Mortars Godfather Mortars 112 1 Platoon Tac Cannibal 310 Battalion Tac 1 Spartan 244 Wpns Co Tac CAAT Red 150 BN Mortars Saipan Mortars 200 Bravo, 1/10 Brimstone 176 3. Challenge and Password Primary: Moonbeam/Ireland Alternate: Numbers adding up to 11 Running: Vegas 4. Near/Far recognition signals. During daylight hours, the moving unit shall initiate the far recognition signal with one Marine removing their cover and rotating it in a full circle twice. The stationary unit shall respond by standing and raising both arms perpendicular to their body, displaying the “iron cross”. The moving unit shall confirm by replacing their cover on their head. During times of limited visibility, the moving unit shall initiate by sending three IR flashes, to which the stationary unit will respond with one IR flash. The moving unit will confirm with two IR flashes. (The alternate to the IR flashes is a red-lens flashlight.) In both daylight and limited visibility situations, the near recognition signal will be proper issuance of the challenge and an appropriate response. 5. Location of the CEOI. All CEOI’s shall be retained in the right shoulder pocket by the Platoon Commander, Platoon Sergeant, all squad leaders, the Plt Guide, and the Plt RTO. 6. Reports. The Plt RTO, Plt Sgt, Plt Guide, and all squad leaders are required to have copies of all required reporting formats at all times. a. SALUTE Report Line 1 Size Line 2 Activity Line 3 Location Line 4 Unit Line 5 Time Line 6 Equipment Line 7 Notes 55 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) b. 9-Line Medevac Request Line 1 Location of pick-up site Line 2 Radio frequency, callsign Line 3 Number of patients by precedence __(a) Urgent __(c) Priority __(d) Routine Line 4 Special Equipment __(a) None __(b) Hoist __(c) Extract equip. __(d) Ventilator Line 5 No. of Patients (by type) __(l) litter __(a) ambulatory Line 6 Security of pickup site (n) no EN (p) possible EN (e) EN in area (x) EN/escort req. Line 7 Method of marking (a) panels (b) pyro (c) smoke (d) none (e) other Line 8 Patient nationality/status (a) US mil (b) US civ (c) Non-US mil (d) Non-US civ (e) EPW Line 9 NBCR (n) nuclear (b) biological (c) chemical (r) radioactive c. Personnel, Equipment, Weapons Accountability (PEWAC) Line 1 Callsign Line 2 Time Line 3 Grid location Line 4 Number of students in the field Line 5 Number of students in the rear Line 6 M16 Line 7 M203 Line 8 M249 Line 9 M240G Line 10 NVG’s Line 11 Binoculars Line 12 PRC 119 d. Daily Logistics Summary (LogSum) Line 1 Callsign Line 2 Time Line 3 Grid location Line 4 Water (1 qt canteens per Marine) Line 5 5.56mm blank (loose) Line 6 5.56mm blank (link) Line 7 7.62mm blank (link) Line 8 Smoke/Pyro (all colors) 56 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) B. Command 1. Location of Key Leaders. I will travel with 1st Squad (ME) from Hill 390 to the ORP. The Platoon Sergeant and Platoon Guide will travel with 2nd Squad (SE 1). Upon arrival at the ORP, the Plt Guide, 1st Squad leader, and myself will depart with the other LR personnel. The Plt Sgt and Plt Corpsman will be in a hasty Plt CP in the center of the position. Upon occupation of the BP, I will be in the Plt CP center line, along with the Plt Corpsman and RTO. The Plt Guide and Plt Sgt will be located there as well. The Company CO will be located with Company E() vic the Co AA. The Co GySgt is located at the Co AA. 2. Succession of Command. Platoon Sergeant, Platoon Guide, 1st Squad Leader, 2nd Squad Leader, 3rd Squad Leader The time is now 1100. Are there any questions? 57 Basic Officer Course B2B2377 Combat Orders Foundations Appendix D (Continued) Plt (Rein) Def Order Map 58 Basic Officer Course ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course N S 000 taught by Professor Kopke during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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