psycho chap.4 - 1.OUTLINE DEVELOPMENT*Emotional dev...

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1.OUTLINE: DEVELOPMENT *Emotional dev, cont’: (Mahler, Erickson) *IQ dev: (Piaget, Vygotsky, Harris) *Moral dev: (Kohlberg, discipline) *Sexual development 2. Margaret Mahler Object Relations *0-1 month – completely with in self (normal autism) *2-3 months – symbiotic fusion (mom + I = one) *4-8 months: *separation – individuation *Baby takes 1st step at separation *Explores environment *Frequently checks back with mom *9-15 months – Practicing *Temporary separation increases *15-24 months – Rapprochement *Conflict between dependence & independence *Fear of engulfment, smothered *On the way to object constancy *Develops sense of self & a permanent emotional representation of others 3. Erick Erickson *8 stages *Infancy : Trust vs. Mistrust, 1 st Year *Toddler : Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt, 2 nd Year *Pre-school : Initiative vs. Guilt, Learns to initiate tasks and deals with self control *Elementary school : Competence vs. Inferiority, Learns how to make it in the world 6 yr - puberty *Adolescence : Identity vs. Role Confusion, People who did not deal w/this issue would have identity confusion, Teen yrs. – 20’s *Young Adult: Intimacy vs. Isolation, 20’s – 40’s *Mid Adult : Generativity vs. Stagnation, To feel that you made a contribution in the world, 40’s – 60’s *Late Adult: Integrity vs. Despair, 60’s – on 4. Joan Erickson (1997): in her 90’s 9 th stage :Disgust: Wisdom *80’s and 90’s: can move towards gero-transcendence: shift from a materialistic & rational vision to peace of mind & spirituality 5. PIAGET *First person to have the most thorough theory of how thinking evolves CONCEPTS *Schema : a concept or framework that organizes & interprets information *Assimilate : maintain schema *Accommodate : change schema Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development #. Sensorimotor: *Birth – 2 Years *Infant experiences the world through senses & actions (looking, touching) *Object permanence (9 mo) *Stranger anxiety
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#. Preoperational: *2-6 Years *Child represents things with words & images, but cannot use logic.
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