13-Urbanization and Livable Cities

13-Urbanization and Livable Cities - Urbanization and...

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Urbanization and Livable Cities Environmental Problems Biol 1305
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Our urbanizing world Urbanization = the movement of people from rural to urban areas The greatest change of human society since its transition to a sedentary agricultural lifestyle Urban areas are growing rapidly The growing human population More people are moving to urban areas Urbanization began when agricultural surpluses allowed people to leave their farms
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Global urbanizing trends In 1950, 30% of the population was urban, today it’s 49% In developed nations, urbanization has slowed Suburbs = the smaller communities that ring cities Developing nations are urbanizing rapidly People are searching for jobs and urban lifestyles
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Today’s urban centers are unprecedented Urban centers have been part of human culture for thousands of years The sheer scale of today’s urban areas is unprecedented Today, 20 cities are home to more than 10 million residents Tokyo, Japan, is home to 35 million people Mexico City and New York City, each hold 19 million
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Urban growth has often been rapid American cities grew rapidly Due to increased trade Crowding and deteriorating economic conditions occurred Residents moved to the suburbs Cities in southern and western states have grown People in northern and eastern states moved in search of warmer weather or more space
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Urbanization in developing countries Most fast-growing cities are in developing countries Less need for farm labor due to industrialization Wars, conflict, and ecological degradation Many of these cities face overcrowding, pollution, and poverty Their economic growth does not match their population growth
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Factors influence the geography of urban areas Climate, topography, and the configuration of waterways help determine if a small settlement becomes a large city Many well-located cities are linchpins in trading networks They funnel in resources from agricultural regions
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Spatial patterns of urbanization change Today, population centers are decentralizing Global commerce, jet travel, television, cell phones, the Internet Businesses don’t need to be in urban areas Highway networks make it easier to commute
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People have moved to suburbs By the mid-1900s, the U.S. and other countries had accumulated more people than jobs Unemployment caused poverty and crime Affluent city dwellers moved to cleaner, less-crowded suburbs Suburbs had advantages of space and privacy More space, better economic conditions, cheaper real estate, less crime, and better schools But natural space decreased with increasing suburbs People had to drive everywhere, increasing traffic congestion
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Sprawl Houses and roads supplant more than 2 million ha (2.5 million acres) of U.S. land per year Sprawl = the spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center Physical spread of development is greater than the rate
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13-Urbanization and Livable Cities - Urbanization and...

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