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01-19-10 - Chapter 1 Science and Pseudoscience in...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Science and Pseudoscience in Psychology Skills for Thinking Scientifically in Everyday Life Lecture Preview Explore the differences between science and popular psychology Discover principles of critical thinking and scientific skepticism Discuss pseudoscientific beliefs and how to identify them Science versus Popular Psychology Popular psychology industry - _____ sources of information about human behavior The problems with common sense Common sense can lead us to believe two things that _____________(e.g., proverbs). Naïve Realism The belief that we see the world precisely as it is Can cause us to make mistakes when _________. Popular Psychology Misinformation The Explosion quality of the information can be good, but it may be misleading, or dangerous How do we tell the difference between Information and Misinformation? They can appear similar Insist on ________ to make the distincition Psychology as a Science Science is an__________ , a toolbox of skills used to prevent us from fooling ourselves ◦ ◦ Communalism - willingness to ________. Disinterestedness - attempt to be ____ when evaluating evidence Science as a Safeguard against Bias Confirmation bias - tendency to seek out evidence that ____ our hypothesis and _______ contradicting evidence Belief perseverance - tendency to ________ even when evidence contradicts them Scientific Skepticism Scientific skeptics: 1) evaluate all claims with an __________. 2) insist on ______ _____ before accepting these claims Pathological skepticism - tendency to dismiss any claims that _________. Basic Principles of Critical Thinking Critical thinking - set of skills for evaluating all claims in an ______ and ___ fashion 1. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence 2. Falsifiability - for a claim to be meaningful, it must be capable of being _________ • Risky predictions 3. Occam’s Razor (parsimony) - _______ ____ is the best one Basic Principles of Critical Thinking 4. Replicability - findings must be ____, ideally by ________. 5. Ruling out rival hypotheses - need to consider _______. 6. Correlation Is Not Causation • Correlation-causation fallacy • Third variable problem A B OR B A OR C •If A and B are correlated: B A ...
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