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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Social Cognition
1 Social Cognition Our perceptions and interpretations of our partnerships are enormously important: What we think helps to determine what we feel, and then how we act. 2 First Impressions First impressions have enormous staying power. They influence our judgments of others for a long time.
Why? 3 Asch (1946) One group read this description:
– Envious Other group read this description:
– Intelligent Rated This Person
4 First Impressions First, we don’t start from scratch.
Then, primacy effects occur
A confirmation bias is typical
We do not believe that our first impressions are wrong
– Thus, we tend to be overconfident 5 The Power of Perceptions Idealizing Our Partners
– Attributions are our explanations of events.
– They identify the causes of events, emphasizing the role of some influences and minimizing the role of others. 6 The Power of Perceptions: Attributional Processes
We can emphasize influences that are:
– Internal to a person, such as personality or mood, or external, describing the situation the person faced.
– Stable and lasting, or unstable and temporary.
– Global, affecting many situations, or specific, affecting only a few.
7 State of couple’s
Pattern Partner’s Behaviors Attributional
Made Positive Unhappy Negative External
Specific Positive Happy Relationshi
p Enhancing Internal
Global 8 The Power of Perceptions: Attributional Processes The actor/observer effect: People generate different explanations for their own actions than they do for the similar actions they observe in others. Selfserving biases lead people to see themselves as responsible for the good things that happen to them, but as relatively blameless when things go wrong. reconstructive memory is a term used to describe the fact that our memories are continually revised and rewritten as new events occur.
9 The Power of Perceptions Relationship Beliefs
– Romanticism is the view that love should be the most important basis for choosing a mate.
– Other beliefs are dysfunctional and disadvantageous Other Relationship Beliefs
Destiny beliefs assume that two people are either well
suited for each other and destined to live happily ever after, or they’re not.
Growth beliefs assume that good relationships are a result of hard work.
10 The Power of Perceptions: Expectations Selffulfilling prophecies are false predictions that come true because they lead people to behave in ways that make the erroneous predictions come true. When they expected to be liked by a stranger, people were,
And when they expected to be disliked, they were…
(Curtis & Miller, 1986) 11
11 The Power of Perceptions: SelfPerceptions
Our selfconcepts encompass all the beliefs and feelings we have about ourselves.
– The selfenhancement motive leads us to seek feedback that makes us look good.
– The selfverification motive leads us to seek feedback that supports and verifies our existing self
12 Impression Management Impression management usually involves showing others perhaps in a selective fashion who we really are. 13
13 Impression Management Strategies of Impression Management
– Ingratiation – doing favors, paying compliments, and being friendly and charming to elicit liking from others.
– Selfpromotion – recounting accomplishments or displaying skills to elicit respect from others.
– Supplication – appearing inept or infirm to elicit help and nurturance from others.
– Intimidation – appearing threatening or dangerous to elicit fear and compliance from others. 14
14 Impression Management Impression Management in Close Relationships
– We usually go to less trouble to maintain favorable images for our intimate partners than we do for others.
– We also work to create desirable images of our partners – and our relationships – for others.
Individual differences may also be important.
– High selfmonitors
– Low selfmonitors 15
15 So, Just How Well Do We Know Our Partners?
It depends . . . Knowledge Motivation Partner Legibility Perceiver Ability Threatening Perceptions Perceiver Influence 16
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- Spring '09