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Week 4 Social Cognition

Week 4 Social Cognition - Chapter 4 Social Cognition 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Social Cognition 1 Social Cognition Our perceptions and interpretations of our partnerships are enormously important: What we think helps to determine what we feel, and then how we act. 2 First Impressions First impressions have enormous staying power. They influence our judgments of others for a long time. Why? 3 Asch (1946) One group read this description: – Intelligent – Industrious – Impulsive – Critical – Stubborn – Envious Other group read this description: – Envious – Stubborn – Critical – Impulsive – Industrious – Intelligent Rated This Person More Positively 4 First Impressions First, we don’t start from scratch. Then, primacy effects occur A confirmation bias is typical We do not believe that our first impressions are wrong – Thus, we tend to be overconfident 5 The Power of Perceptions Idealizing Our Partners Attributional Processes – Attributions are our explanations of events. – They identify the causes of events, emphasizing the role of some influences and minimizing the role of others. 6 The Power of Perceptions: Attributional Processes We can emphasize influences that are: – Internal to a person, such as personality or mood, or external, describing the situation the person faced. – Stable and lasting, or unstable and temporary. – Global, affecting many situations, or specific, affecting only a few. 7 State of couple’s Relationship Attributional Pattern Partner’s Behaviors Attributional Made Positive Unhappy Negative External Unstable Specific Positive Happy Relationshi p Enhancing Internal Stable Global External Unstable Specific Distress Maintaining Negative Internal Stable Global 8 The Power of Perceptions: Attributional Processes The actor/observer effect: People generate different explanations for their own actions than they do for the similar actions they observe in others. Self­serving biases lead people to see themselves as responsible for the good things that happen to them, but as relatively blameless when things go wrong. reconstructive memory is a term used to describe the fact that our memories are continually revised and rewritten as new events occur. 9 The Power of Perceptions Relationship Beliefs – Romanticism is the view that love should be the most important basis for choosing a mate. – Other beliefs are dysfunctional and disadvantageous Other Relationship Beliefs Destiny beliefs assume that two people are either well­ suited for each other and destined to live happily ever after, or they’re not. Growth beliefs assume that good relationships are a result of hard work. 10 10 The Power of Perceptions: Expectations Self­fulfilling prophecies are false predictions that come true because they lead people to behave in ways that make the erroneous predictions come true. When they expected to be liked by a stranger, people were, And when they expected to be disliked, they were… (Curtis & Miller, 1986) 11 11 The Power of Perceptions: Self­Perceptions Our self­concepts encompass all the beliefs and feelings we have about ourselves. – The self­enhancement motive leads us to seek feedback that makes us look good. – The self­verification motive leads us to seek feedback that supports and verifies our existing self­ concepts. 12 12 Impression Management Impression management usually involves showing others ­­ perhaps in a selective fashion ­­ who we really are. 13 13 Impression Management Strategies of Impression Management – Ingratiation – doing favors, paying compliments, and being friendly and charming to elicit liking from others. – Self­promotion – recounting accomplishments or displaying skills to elicit respect from others. – Supplication – appearing inept or infirm to elicit help and nurturance from others. – Intimidation – appearing threatening or dangerous to elicit fear and compliance from others. 14 14 Impression Management Impression Management in Close Relationships – We usually go to less trouble to maintain favorable images for our intimate partners than we do for others. – We also work to create desirable images of our partners – and our relationships – for others. Individual differences may also be important. – High self­monitors – Low self­monitors 15 15 So, Just How Well Do We Know Our Partners? It depends . . . Knowledge Motivation Partner Legibility Perceiver Ability Threatening Perceptions Perceiver Influence 16 16 ...
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