Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8
Chapter 8 Love Red-winged Blackbird Whiptail Lizard Cleaner Wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) "Loving" Bonobos “Lucy” Australopithecus Afarensis Ardipithecus ramidus, Canines, and Love Bipedalism and the obstetrical dilemma Percentage of Adult Brain Size:
Percentage of Adult Brain Size: What’s Love got to do with it?
What’s Love got to do with it? Maternal behavior among primates extends throughout an extremely long infant and juvenile period, with prolonged periods of physical contact. Love may be a by product, an exaptation, that keeps us together.
Orang-Utan What is love? What is love? “At the touch of love everyone becomes a poet.” – Plato
"Love is friendship set on fire." unknown "Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing." Goethe “Fortune and love favor the brave.” – Ovid
Love and dignity cannot share the same abode. – Ovid
Love is a kind of warfare. – Ovid
"Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing." Goethe “Love is life. All, everything that I understand, I understand only because I love." Leo Tolstoy
"Love is blind.“ Chaucer “Love is always open arms. If you close your arms about love you will find that you are left holding only yourself.” Leo Buscaglia Helen Fisher Helen Fisher
Anatomy of Love postulated three main phases of love: lust an intense longing. attraction an action that tends to draw people together. attachment a bonding progression. A Brief History of Love A Brief History of Love
Different cultures have held very different views of love: Cultural value: Is love desirable or undesirable? Sexuality: Should love be sexual or nonsexual? Sexual orientation: Should love involve samesex or heterosexual partners? Marital status: Should we love our spouses, or is love reserved for others? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUvrCaesLDs Would You Marry Someone if You Were Not Would You Marry Someone if You Were Not in Love?
1967 1986 American Students Surveyed Types of Love The Triangular Theory of Love
Three different building blocks are presumed to combine to form different types of love:
– Intimacy – Passion – Commitment Types of Love
Combinations of intimacy, passion, and commitment
Different mixtures of these components create different experiences Intimacy Passion Commitment Nonlove
Romantic love Companionate love
Consummate love x x
x x x x
I cannot imagine another person making me as happy as _____ does
There is nothing more important to me than my relationship with _____
My relationship with _____ is very romantic
I cannot imagine life without _____ I adore _____
I find myself thinking about _____ frequently during the day
Just seeing _____ is exciting for me
I find _____ very attractive physically
I idealize _____
There is something almost `magical' about my relationship with _____ My relationship with _____ is very `alive'
I especially like giving presents to _____ Intimacy
I have a warm and comfortable relationship with
I experience intimate communication with _____
I strongly desire to promote the well-being of _____
I have a relationship of mutual understanding with
I received considerable emotional support from _____
I am able to count on _____in times of need
_____ is able to count on me in times of need
I value _____ greatly in my life
I am willing to share myself and my possessions with
I experience great happiness with _____
I feel emotionally close to _____
I give considerable emotional support to _____ Commitment
I will always feel a strong responsibility for _____
I expect my love for _____ to last for the rest of my life
I can't imagine ending my relationship with _____
I view my relationship with _____ as permanent
I would stay with _____ through the most difficult
I view my commitment to _____ as a matter of
I am certain of my love for _____
I have decided that I love _____
I am committed to maintaining my relationship with
I view my relationship with _____ as, in part, a
I could not let anything get in the way of my Types of Love
Romantic love involves passion…
…and any form of strong arousal, pleasant or unpleasant, can influence our feelings of romantic love.
Excitation transfer occurs when arousal caused by one event fuels stronger emotional reactions to a second, unrelated event. Can fear fuel sexual attraction?
Can fear fuel sexual attraction?
Dutton & Aron (1974)
Young men (Ages 1925)
Half walked across high suspension bridge
Half walked across low, stable bridge
At end of bridge, male or female research assistant
Asked to answer a few questions and tell a story about a picture
Each participant was thanked and invited to call research assistant at home if wanted more information Types of Love A twofactor theory of romantic love proposes that such love results from:
(a) physiological arousal that is paired with
(b) the belief that another person is the cause of your arousal. Types of Love
Some of the thoughts that underlie romantic love are apparent in a Love Scale that assesses:
– Intimacy: “I feel that I can confide in my partner about virtually anything.”
– Attachment: “If I could never be with my partner, I would be miserable.”
– Caring: “I would do almost anything for my partner.” Types of Love
Love is blind: When men expected to date a woman, they thought her lousy work was better than it really was. Types of Love Companionate Love – As a combination of intimacy and commitment, companionate love is a comfortable, affectionate, trusting love based on friendship and companionship. Passionate love – is an intense state of longing for union with another. Can come in the form of both ecstasy and anguish Types of Love
Styles of Loving Eros – erotic love with a strong physical component Ludus – playful and uncommitted; love is a game Storge – love that emphasizes friendship and commitment Mania – possessive, obsessive love that is full of fantasy Agape – altruistic, selfless, dutiful love Pragma – practical and pragmatic, dispassionate love Individual Differences in Love
Early studies demonstrated that people with secure attachment styles experience more intimacy, passion, and commitment than people with anxious/ambivalent or avoidant styles do. John Bowlby – Felt Security and a Secure Base Mary Ainsworth – Strange Situation Hazan and Shaver – Adult Attachment Styles Bartholomew – 4 cognitive styles Collins and Read – Underlying Mechanisms Attachment Styles
Two themes are now thought to underlie the four styles: Anxiety over abandonment – describing the worry that others will find us unworthy and leave us, and Avoidance of intimacy – describing the ease and trust with which we accept interdependent intimacy with others Attachment Styles
These themes influence important elements of interaction: Beliefs,expectations, and memories Communication Coping and caregiving Sexual behavior Personal wellbeing Relationship satisfaction Individual Differences in Love
Most people mellow with age. Emotions are less intense, and generally more positive. Individual Differences in Love
Men and Women
Men and women are more similar than different when it comes to love.
However, men are more likely to believe in “love at first sight,” and they want their loves to be passionate.
Women are more cautious and selective, and they feel passion more slowly. Does Love Last?
After two years of marriage, average spouses express affection for each other only half as often as they did when they were newlyweds.
Divorces occur more frequently in the fourth year of marriage than at any other time. Does Love Last?
Consider the frequency with which couples share sexual intercourse (which is one measure of passion). Passion clearly fades with time and experience. Does Love Last? So, What Does the Future Hold? ...
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- Australopithecus, Australopithecus afarensis, Ardipithecus, bipedalism, Red-winged Blackbird, Bluestreak cleaner wrasse