8. Action and Culture

33 goalpursuit

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Unformatted text preview: pes. Their difference between the size of males and female was more or less like the difference among contemporary humans. The skills of manufacturing their tools must have been culturally transmitted in the same way that stone tools traditions are transmitted among living foragers. 29 Human language. Crucial but paleontologists have no idea when it evolved. The anatomy of vocal tracts suggests that even Neanderthals may have had very limited speech. Some argue that complex behaviors can be acquired by mimicry in the absence of language. People may have been mute until contemporary recent times. 30 Social Causality The presence of meaning is essential to social causality. E.g.: we wouldn’t vote and cause distant future events without meaning. 31 Goals Most behavior is goal­directed. Goals depends on meaning insofar as one envisages future events. A chimp can perform the same behavior as us (e.g. wash dishes) but it doesn’t really washes the dishes: it’s goal is not to get the dishes clean; it merely imitate the experimenter. 32 Goals pursuit depends on being able to think about a future state. Evolution takes something that animals can do on a small scale and gives humans the ability to do it on a grand scale. We can do so because we’re aided by language and the other tools of culture. 33 Goal Pursuit It involves a shift between two different mental states: (i) deliberative stage (the person reflects on whether to pursue a particular goal); (ii) implemental state (the person attempts imp...
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