8. Action and Culture

44 occasionallytheconsciousmindcanoverride

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Unformatted text preview: an extreme position holding that even social causality is an illusion. 40 The scientific enterprise rests on the view that causal principles exist to be found (people are product of their environment: thus changes in the environment make a change in the individuals). But actual finding in psychology are probabilistic, not deterministic. The majority of psychology research findings merely signify slight changes in the odd of any particular response. 41 Criticism of free will To define freedom independently of any identifiable influence is an absurd, impossible requirement. Morality is a social notion and exist socially, not physically. Thus a decision made on moral judgments cannot be reduced to purely physical causation. The brain must process the moral judgments, but the latter don’t reduce to molecule firing. 42 If Kant is right in holding that causality is one of the basic, innate, category of human understanding, then human minds (and psychological scientists) can only understand events as being caused. Thus theorists cannot explain how free will can work. We cannot construe a theory without invoking causality. This, though, doesn’t mean that freedom doesn’t exist. It merely means that our explanation of the world doesn’t match the world precisely. 43 Free will and the real world Outside psychology people believe in free will. The whole legal system rests on it (no free will = no responsibility). Addicts prove the existence of free will: an addict knows that there is an important difference between the driven by external factors and in relati...
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