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fChapter 6 - Chapter 6 How Atoms Bond Shells Remember...

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Chapter 6 How Atoms Bond
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Shells Remember electrons exist in shells n=1 holds 2 electrons n=2 and 3 holds 8 each n=4 and 5 holds 18 each n=6 and 7 holds 32 each Not all of these electrons are important when making bonds
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Bonds Elements bond to one another by sharing or transferring electrons The electrons that can be used in bonding are in what we call the valence shell The valence shell is only a portion of the outer shell
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Electron-Dot Structure We can note these valence shell electrons by using an electron-dot structure
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In a dot structure, paired electrons are called nonbonding pairs because they generally do not form bonds It is the single electrons that can be shared between atoms
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Let’s look at how to fill in electron-dot structures for some common elements Na K Cl Mg O S
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In a dot structure you do not pair electrons until you add the 5th electron and higher Spin – Two electrons pair up in an orbital To keep them from repelling each other they spin in opposite directions
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Opposite spins gives the electrons opposite magnetic fields so they attract each other This compensates for the repulsion from their negative charge
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How many non bonding pairs of electrons are in the dot structure for Sulfur? 1) 0 2) 1 3) 2 4) 3 5) 4
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Ions Atoms can form ions by losing or gaining electrons An ion is simply an atom with a charge positive negative
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Atoms form ions to gain a full valence shell Atoms are the most stable with a full valence shell
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Metals Metals especially group 1, 2, and 13 like to give up electrons and form positive ions All group 1 elements will lose one electron in order to have a full valence shell (except hydrogen)
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Nonmetals Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to fill their valence shell General rule: When deciding whether atoms lose or gain electrons decide which way is closer to the noble gas
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Ion notation Ions are noted with a charge superscript Na1+ Ions are more stable (therefore less reactive) atoms because they have a full valence shell like a noble gas does
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Figure 6.6
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What is the most likely ion for phosphorous to form? A) +1 B) +3 C) -3 D) -1 E) +2
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