FChapter 6 - Chapter 6 How Atoms Bond Shells • Remember electrons exist in shells – n=1 holds 2 electrons – n=2 and 3 holds 8 each – n=4

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 How Atoms Bond Shells • Remember electrons exist in shells – n=1 holds 2 electrons – n=2 and 3 holds 8 each – n=4 and 5 holds 18 each – n=6 and 7 holds 32 each • Not all of these electrons are important when making bonds Bonds • Elements bond to one another by sharing or transferring electrons • The electrons that can be used in bonding are in what we call the valence shell • The valence shell is only a portion of the outer shell Electron-Dot Structure • We can note these valence shell electrons by using an electron-dot structure • In a dot structure, paired electrons are called nonbonding pairs because they generally do not form bonds • It is the single electrons that can be shared between atoms • Let’s look at how to fill in electron-dot structures for some common elements • Na • K • Cl • Mg • O • S • In a dot structure you do not pair electrons until you add the 5th electron and higher • Spin – – Two electrons pair up in an orbital – To keep them from repelling each other they spin in opposite directions • Opposite spins gives the electrons opposite magnetic fields so they attract each other • This compensates for the repulsion from their negative charge • How many non bonding pairs of electrons are in the dot structure for Sulfur? – 1) 0 – 2) 1 – 3) 2 – 4) 3 – 5) 4 Ions • Atoms can form ions by losing or gaining electrons • An ion is simply an atom with a charge – positive – negative • Atoms form ions to gain a full valence shell • Atoms are the most stable with a full valence shell Metals • Metals especially group 1, 2, and 13 like to give up electrons and form positive ions • All group 1 elements will lose one electron in order to have a full valence shell (except hydrogen) Nonmetals • Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to fill their valence shell • General rule: – When deciding whether atoms lose or gain electrons decide which way is closer to the noble gas Ion notation • Ions are noted with a charge superscript • Na1+ • Ions are more stable (therefore less reactive) atoms because they have a full valence shell like a noble gas does Figure 6.6 • What is the most likely ion for phosphorous to form? – A) +1 – B) +3 – C) -3 – D) -1 – E) +2 Ionic Molecules • Molecules can also form ions – polyatomic ions – ions formed from multi atom molecules • Atoms become ions by losing or gaining electrons, molecules typically lose or gain a hydrogen ion (H+) Ionic water • Water can make both a positive and a negative ion by gaining or losing a hydrogen • Positive ion, hydronium, is H3O+ • Negative ion, hydroxide, is OH- Ionic Bond...
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This document was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course SPAN 1512 at South Plains College.

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FChapter 6 - Chapter 6 How Atoms Bond Shells • Remember electrons exist in shells – n=1 holds 2 electrons – n=2 and 3 holds 8 each – n=4

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