gChapter 7 - Chapter 7 Intermolecular bond types Solutions...

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Chapter 7 Intermolecular bond types Ion, dipole, induced dipole Solutions Molarity, concentrations, solubility Soaps
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Molecular Attractions Dipole – the separation of charge in a covalent bond In H-F the fluorine has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen has a partial positive charge Polar molecules can thus be called dipoles
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Molecular Attractions There are several types of charge – charge interactions between molecules
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Ion-Dipole The strongest interaction is ion-dipole Water is a molecule with a large dipole This allows it to attract both positive and negative ions
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This is how water is easily able to dissolve salt (NaCl)
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Dipole - Dipole Two dipole molecules will also attract each other Ex. the attraction of one water molecule to another
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Hydrogen bond Water has a special dipole – dipole attraction called a hydrogen bond A hydrogen bond can occur when a hydrogen is attached to a very electronegative element like F, N or O. The hydrogen then interacts with the lone pair of electrons on another molecule
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While hydrogen bonds are weaker than an ionic or covalent bond, they are very strong in regards to inter molecular attractions Water hydrogen bonds which helps give it its very high boiling point
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Dipole – Induced dipole Molecules that are not polar like O2 can temporarily become polar when around polar molecules such as water This is called an induced dipole and is the result of a temporary uneven distribution of electrons
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Like dissolves Like O2 is a nonpolar molecule but can be dissolved in water due to induced dipole effect
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Another example is Saran Wrap (plastic wrap)
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Induced Dipole – Induced Dipole In general molecules and atoms have an even distribution of electrons However at any given time electrons can be found concentrated at one given end of the molecule This makes a temporary dipole
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The larger the molecule the easier it is to induce a dipole
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Teflon Designing a nonstick surface Fluorine is very small and has little room for electrons to move around, so it is unlikely to make an induced dipole
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Methane vs. Gasoline Methane, CH4, is a gas at room temp. Gasoline, C8H18, is a liquid Why?
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Solutions Solutions are single phase homogeneous mixtures I.E. in a solution everything must be in the same phase liquid, liquid solid, solid gas, gas
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Sugar dissolving into water is a solution The sugar molecule is not destroyed but it
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This document was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course SPAN 1512 at South Plains College.

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gChapter 7 - Chapter 7 Intermolecular bond types Solutions...

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