iChapter10 - Chapter 10 Acids and Bases • What are acids...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Acids and Bases • What are acids and bases? • Formation of ions in solution • Types of reactions • Strengths • pH Acids • Acid – any chemical that donates a proton • Acids have a sour taste • Found in citrus fruits, coke, pickles (vinegar), some household cleaners • 85 billion pounds of sulfuric acid are produced a year Bases • Base – any chemical that accept a proton • Commonly found in soaps and drain cleaners • 25 billion pounds are produced a year for the pulp and paper industry Protons • Acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors • But what is the proton? • A hydrogen atom is 1 proton and 1 electron • In these reactions it is a hydrogen nucleus that is transferred from one to the other. Acidic reactions • Let’s look at adding HCl to water • HCl is hydrochloric acid and as you can guess is a proton donor (rxn) • Acids reacting with water generate two ions • The important ion is the formation of hydronium , a water molecule with an extra hydrogen nucleus attached Bases • Now let’s look at a basic reaction • Ammonia added to water accepts a proton from water • Notice how water now becomes the acid (donates a proton). • Ammonia, the base, accept this proton • This reaction also generates ions, but now the water ion is missing a hydrogen nucleus and is called hydroxide . • In each reaction water behaved differently • When mixed with an acid water behaves like a base, when mixed with a base it behaves like an acid Reverse reactions • The ammonia reaction: • The dual arrow in this reaction means it goes both directions Acid base reactions • When adding an acid and a base together...
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iChapter10 - Chapter 10 Acids and Bases • What are acids...

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