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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Gender Issues Male and Female...

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Chapter 5: Gender Issues Male and Female, Masculine and Feminine Sex and Gender Sex: biological maleness and femaleness Gender: the psychological and sociocultural characteristics associated with our sex. Femininity or masculinity o Labels may limit the range of behaviors that people are comfortable expressing Gender assumptions: assumptions about how people are likely to behave based on their maleness or femaleness Gender Identity and Gender Role Gender identity: how one psychologically perceives oneself as either male or female Gender role: a collection of attitudes and behaviors that a specific culture considers normal and appropriate for people of a particular sex. Culturally defined and vary from society to society Gender-Identity Formation Biological Process: Typical Prenatal Differentiation Chromosomal Sex Sperm: the male reproductive cell Ovum (egg): the female reproductive cell Autosomes: the 22 pairs of human chromosomes that do not significantly influence sex differentiation Sex chromosomes: a single set of chromosomes that influences biological sex determination (XY) Two X chromosomes are necessary for internal and external female structures to develop completely Testes: male gonads inside the scrotum that produce sperm and sex hormones SRY: Maleness-determining gene Gene (or genes) on the X chromosome helps to push the undifferentiated gonads in a female direction just as the SRY gene helps to start construction of male sex structures Gonadal Sex Gonads: the male and female sex glands: Ovaries: female gonads that produce ova and sex hormones Testes Hormonal Sex Estrogens: a class of hormones that produce female secondary sex characteristics and affect the menstrual cycle Progestational compounds: a class of hormones, including progesterone, that are produced by the ovaries Androgens: a class of hormones that promote the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics and influence sexual motivation in both sexes. Hormones produced by the adrenal glands in males and females and by the tests in males. Sex of the Internal Reproductive Structures
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Chapter 5: Gender Issues Androgens secreted by the testes stimulate the Wolffian ducts to develop into the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) Causes the Mullerian duct system to shrink and disappear in males Absence of androgens leads to female development Sex Differentiation of the Brain Areas significantly affected by circulating hormones Marked differences between the male and female hypothalamus A small structure in the central core of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and regulates motivated behavior and emotional expression.
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