Review for test 2

Review for test 2 - CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Breaks down...

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION : Breaks down glucose to provide energy via ATP allowing to do work. Product of photosynthesis: glucose Creates 36-38 ATP through: Glycolysis (cytosol) which turns Glucose into Pyruvic Acid (pyruvate). 2 Atp used to create the energy to break Glucose 6-C sugar into 2 3-C sugars with Phosphate ends. This then creates 2 Pyruvate mlc. Sugar is being oxidized. NAD+ is reduced to NADH (high reducing powers & carries electrons) 4 ATP produced 2 Net ATP produced. Then Pyruvic Acid Metabolism (cytosol/mito matrix) occurs. Pyruvic Acid goes to Acetyl CoA (2C+CO2) and enters Krebs Cycle. Products = CO2,2 ATP, NADH, & FADH2. (last 2 give electron away in ETC). Breaks down Pyruvic Acid & uses energy to break down CO2 and produces NADH & FADH2. Lastly, the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) (inner membrane mito matrix). Electron is excited by NADH & FADH2 and passes on the energy down a chain of electrons to the final acceptor O2 which then produces H20. This water helps to pump H+ out of the cell against their gradient to then by used in ATP Synthatse providing energy to convert ADP ATP as H+ go down their chem. . gradient. This inadvertadly helps produce 3X the number of ATP b/c of the 3 H+ pumps versus the 1 found in photosynthesis. 32-34 ATP produced here. ETC stopped when CO or CN (cyanide) bonds to last component of ETC stopping O2 from accepting e- energy ATP not produced and energy released not accepted so H+ ions cannot be pumped out. If O doesn’t accept energy whole cycle ends. FERMENTATION: When there is no 02 available Glycolysis stops when NAD+ runs out Fermentation produces NAD+ so glycolysis doesn’t stop. 2 types: Lactic Acid (animals & plants) & Ethanolic (plants). PLANT EVOLUTION w/o plants there would be no soil and nothing for living life to live off of. Green Algae lived in moist areas ONLY, has no roots/leaves/stems or vascular tissues . Major problems preventing taking over land: 1. Cant control water loss b/c no cuticle stomata or guard cells & no leaves 2. Can’t absorb water from soil b/c no roots. 3. Can’t translocate/transport water b/c no xylem 4. Reproductive problems b/c water is needed to get sperm to egg b/c sperm swims to egg following eggs chem. Signals. Plant Life Cycle (general ): Sporophyte spore gamertophyte female/male gametes zygote sporophyte Animal: Diploid Meiosis 4 gametes sperm or egg zygot diploid BRYOPHYTES Examples: horn warts, liver warts, mosses Location: smapy environment Usually found in moist shady areas, no true leaves/stems/roots, requires
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This document was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course BIOL 1404 at Texas Tech.

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