wk9_3 - a l '20 . s it 734/er .~ .v. 5.5M rams} t. 2 saw ....

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Unformatted text preview: a l '20 . s it 734/er .~ .v. 5.5M rams} t. 2 saw . 4 EM fdfeuflflt ELI/7‘44 CHAPTER X THE SOCIAL EVIL The social evil in China cannot be fairly judged from west- ern standards. The terms used in discussing this life in America and Europe-fired light district, prostitute, brothelde not exactly describe the licensed amusement district in Peking, the Chinese singsong girl and the Chinese house of prostitution. It has been necessary to use western terminology in describing the social evil in Peking, for there is no better mode of ex- pression available, but the attempt has been made to paint the background of Chinese social life which has brought about a. social situation different in many respects from the west. The singsong girls of the Chinese amusement section are persons who might be classified all the way from the lowest type of western prostitute to certain types of high class entertainers. The Chinese estimate of women, the Chinese family system, the amusement of the Chinese and many other considerations give the professional woman entertainer in China a place for which there is no exact equivalent in western society. Considerable material has been collected regarding the general system prevailing in the Chinese licensed quarter. This has been based on information gathered from interviews with doctors, missionaries, Chinese business men, officials, etc., through per— sonal observation of conditions in the segregated districts and from police regulations and statistics. It has been impossible for us, however, to make any first hand study of the lives of any of the individual girls. - CONDITIONS THAT FOSTER PROSTITUTION I. The low estimate of women is in our Opinion the most fundamental of all conditions that foster prostitution. Little in the sacred writings of China, so rich in other moral teaching, encourages a high estimate of young women. Older women are to be respected, because of their age and because they have been the mothers of sons. Even in the newest twentieth century Confucian Society this low estimate prevails, as women are given no place in the public religious meetings of the Society. The rapidly spreading Renaissance, or New Intellectual Movement, 242 fl. ._\ Hg mOOgH Maw? mgm mBo5m $5 w055m55. 550535 0555mm 5. 5055555.. 50.55%." 55505 .8 arm5m5 $55 05 $5555 5% wnoaoszm $5 855 5595505 Om 2:5 mw5m5 555553.: 355:? om $5 555m 555 55 inn.“er Om 20555 mm 5 5505. m. .25 555. Om 5.505885 59.55505 5 500355. 0055:0555“ 055mm 0% 035555505. 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No. 399%? 83535? 325% W: 5:35? $5 mam mo no” 595 mn m: mrmammmnma g: mam ammnwmma mum mmmlnomfioga mm 32:55 235% 0% $53. mmnmmu $52553 8.5 Qumran 3% $5 520cm 33*: man 5553 om $5? 555:5? £55505 Em om moon; 555T In THE SOCIAL EVIL 251 tainment. The conduct of the girls seems to be governed very closely by those in charge of the houses. They come quickly when called to see a new guest and file by the doorway, each bow- ing as she passes. This whole performance is gone through in an impersonal way, with the absence of anything approaching frivolity. A report from an investigator describes a conversation with a girl of one of the best-known houses as follows: “We had an opportunity to Spend over an hour in conversa- tion with one of these girls. She was about 16 years old, beauti— fully dressed in Chinese silks, most modest in behavior and very intelligent in conversation. She told us very frankly that she had been in the house for about six months, and with some hesitation that her family lived in the West City in Peking. She described something of the life in the amusement section of the city and told how she went out for banquets and entertaining. During the hour she was called out at least six times to see other visitors who had come in. She was also entertaining another group of men in another room and was dividing her time about equally between us. She was a good singer, but not educated in literary lines, as are many of the girls in the first class houses.” The inmates of the various brothels are often natives of one province or sometimes even of one city, Sooch‘ow, from which it is said come the most beautiful girls, Shanghai, etc. This is because of the different dialects spoken in the different parts of the country, the houses naturally catering to the men who come from the same provinces or cities as the girls. Many of the best houses have very fewigirls in them. The average for the first class houses is a little over eight, the higher grade houses often have only five or six inmates, While it is said that one of the most famous places is supported by the visitors of onegirl, she of course being a very noted beauty. The life of an inmate of a first class brothel is one full of excitement. Besides meeting the groups of men that come to the house she is frequently called upon to go to near—by restaurants or even to the home of some high official, to entertain groups of officials or business men. Many of the girls also sing at the small theaters in the district, in some of which all the entertaining is done by women from the licensed quarter. After a woman has finished her part, any one who wishes may meet her at the side of the stage and arrange for a future meeting. While the life’is most exciting and full of change,_it is very evident that for each girl the season of popularity is necessarily short. The demand in the better houses seems to be almost entirely for very young girls, so unless a girl becomes the wife or concubine of some wealthy merchant or official she very soon starts on a downward course ll 252 PEKING: A SOCIAL SURVEY through the second, third and fourth class houses, and eventually, if she lives, may become in her old age an attendant to one of the prostitutes in the better class houses. The following price list gives the official amounts charged by the different class houses for various sorts of entertainment. Price list for the difi‘erent classes of Home: of prostitution. Class First Second Third Fourth Dollars Dollars C upper: Dollar: C appen- Sitting and talking . . . . .. I 50 30 No fixed price. .Spending the night . . . . .. 8 2 L 10-20 coppers. Dinner parties . . . . . . . . “12+, Several tens of coppers. Playing dominoes . . . . . .. 2+; 60 Serving melon seeds IO 3 First class prostitutes, attending a dinner party or playing dominoes in another house, are paid $3, in pairs $5. For them to visit anywhere in the Manchu City costs $10. Second class prostitutes, attending dinner parties, are not paid a fixed amount, but the fee must be at least four times that paid for sitting and talking in their houses. Fees for sitting and talking or spending the night with clan- destine prostitutes are the same as those paid the first class registered prostitutes. ' There is no charge for merely visiting a house and looking at the inmates. It will be seen that many of the charges are for general social entertainment, and as far as we could learn from observation and from inquiry those who go to the brothels for social entertain- ment and conversation with the prostitutes far exceed those who go for other purposes. Besides the regular system of fees above mentioned, it is nec— essary for a high official or wealthy patron to pay large sums of money to secure the good favor of some of the more prominent women in the first class houses. It is not uncommon for an official to spend as much as $700 or $800 in gifts, banquets, and forms of entertainment before he can go further than ordinary social relations with one of these famous girls. It is also re— ported that in some cases an ofiicial may spend years in merely social relations with one of the girls. Practically no drunkenness can be observed in the segregated E. I THE SOCIAL EVIL 253 districts and liquor is apparently not used to any extent in enter- taining visitors, but we are told, on good authority, that the use of foreign liquors at banquets is greatly increasing. With the exception of the worst of the third and fourth class houses the brothels are apparently kept very clean. The girls and women seem to be in good health, but many of them are undoubt- edly infected with venereal disease. The police regulations require a periodic medical inspection of the women, but as far as we could learn this was not being con- sistently enforced. An effort was made to establish a hoSpital for venereal cases, particularly for licensed prostitutes, but it was impossible to secure the necessary funds. Many of the women needing treatment are cared for by the various hospitals through— out the city. Even so, the licensed district must be, as it is in other countries, the source of a tremendous amount of venereal disease. ORGANIZATION OF THE BUSINESS OF PROSTITUTION There is evidently some organization among the owners of the houses of prostitution, as they recently made a united request to the police board that all fees should be paidhin big money, but there does not seem to be anything that corresponds to a gild. We have not been able to discover whether or not these men are organized in their work of procuring girls. RECRUITING It has been impossible to secure any adequate information regarding the recruiting of girls for this traffic, but it is generally known that many of the women have been sold into this life from the flood and famine districts. The usual price of a young girl of 6 or 7 years is $200, though in cases of dire poverty young girls are often sold for much less, sometimes for just a few dollars, provided there is. a promise of food and clothing for them. It is also known that some persons make a practice of kidnaping children for this sort of life and it is said that children abandoned on the street are used for this practice. Parents have also been known to enter into partnership with the owner of a. house to divide the daughter’s earnings. The house manager trains and educates her and then in case she is sold for a con- cubine divides the profits of the sale with her parents. The cadet system, so frequent in western countries, has probably not been developed in China, but there are certain classes of men such as fake medical practitioners, drug clerks, keepers of pawn— shops, and theater attendants, who really act in this capacity. It 3.: 254' ‘ PEKING: A SOCIAL SURVEY is also said that there are some families that make a business of procuring girls. TRAINING Apparently there is in Peking no organized educational sys- tem for training public women as in Japan. The training is done rather on the apprentice system by the individual houses. The girls are taken when quite young, some who are only eight or ten years old being seen around the brothels, and are given a long course of training in singing, music, conversation, all the arts of entertaining and many times a very good classical education. ADVERTISING Unlike Shanghai where solicitation is openly and grossly prac- ticed and it is' considered “great fun” for the visitor to go through the streets of the segregated district and to be solicited by these “wild fowl” who “only fool the country people and old people,” very little is apparent in Peking. There are reported instances of solicitation in the Central Park, at the East Market, and also in the New World, but the police regulations are most strict, and any one found soliciting is arrested and fined. A re— liable citizen of Peking, however, made the statement that solici- tation affects at least 50 percent of the older students. We have no proof to disprove or to confirm this statement, but certainly whatever solicitation there may be is carried on in a less obtrusive manner than in the west and is kept almost concealed. Licensed houses are so open, accessible and numerous that there seems little need for such practice. Practically all the newspapers give extensive publicity to the houses of prostitution and derive therefrom large financial benefit. Beauty contests are conducted among the prostitutes for the sake of the publicity the press can give to the winners, and special “write-ups” of such events are published, together with pic- tures of the women. In some of the Peking newspapers attrac- tive pictures of the women are pasted beside the advertisement for the houses, while in others an entire page will be given up to prostitutes’ cards. These will give the girl’s picture or her name in large type, her address and telephone number and then a bit of description as: “Her face is like a flower, and her body like a jewel.” “She is lovable and as beautiful as the moon.” “She is an actress of Peking. She was born at Chichou. Her original name was Li Hui Fan. She is 17 years old. Although she is not very beautiful, she is able to act dramas. Mr. Chu An loves her very much and sends this picture to us.” “She is beautiful even when she does not laugh.” “She has a beautiful face and an i. «v THE SOCIAL EVIL 255 eyebrows.” “She comes from Shanghai and sings very beauti- fully.” Newspaper men are either paid in money or in trade, and in special cases may even be allowed the privilege of giving a feast in the house to which they may invite their friends. Under such conditions it is obvious that it would be most difficult to inau- gurate a press propaganda against the traffic. Pawnshops are also places of advertisement, the pictures and addresses of the women frequently being displayed on their walls. The restaurants and tea shops often have lists of prosti- tuteson their tables and are always ready to call them by tele— phone to come and entertain guests. The ricksha men are quite well posted on the addresses of most of the houses and usually receive a commission when they bring visitors. Some act .as agents for certain houses and will often take new arrivals in the city directly to one of these houses rather than to the desired hotel. The prostitutes themselves frequently appear in public places, and even if they 'do not openly solicit men they will be approached by those who can tell by their dress the class of society to which they belong. In one medium-sized theater outside Ch’ien Men it is cus- ' tomary for second class women to appear and sing. Following their appearance, engagements may be made by any one present. The trade is also promoted through the cooperation of quack doctors and the wide advertisement of preventive medicines. Frequently these doctors will advise theirpatients to go to one of these houses as a cure for seminal emissions, described by these doctors as harmful. The legitimate cure “606” is also sold as a preventive of venereal disease. Public lavatories are supplied with advertisements of quack doctors and quack medicines. _ Personal friendship is perhaps the method of advertisement that really takes most people to the district. Among the students attending the clinic at the Union Medical College and infected with venereal disease, the usual reply to the question, “How did you first go to the district?” was, “A friend took me there.” The students also reported that they were greatly influenced by news- paper advertisements. CONNECTION WITH PLACES OF AMUSEMENT Vice in Peking is not so closely related to places of amuse- ment as in some western cities. Up to 1912 there were no actresses on the stage, men only being allowed to appear. In the past few years women have been acting in a limited number of theaters, but in no case do men and women belong to the same 256 PEKING: A SOCIAL SURVEY troupe. Prostitutes are found among the actresses and in some theaters that make a specialty of singing, etc., the actresses all come from the licensed quarter and use the theater as a. means of advertising. Lists of the prostitutes are kept in many of the restaurants and the girls are sent for by telephone, the guests frequently returning with them after dinner to the houses of prostitution. In the tea houses, when business men or officials give parties, women are often called in to act in the capacity of hostesses. The hotels are said to be used as assignation houses to some extent and a prominent official reported to us that several large hotels had been recently opened expressly for this purpose. Con— 'cubines and young people from private homes can go to such places undetected. The public bathhouses have little or no con- nection apparently with prostitution. ' The two great amusement centers in the South City, the New World and the park in the Temple of Agriculture, are said to be places where patrons are found for the brothels. The women from the houses sing in the small theaters in these places of entertainment, make engagements after giving their acts and do some other soliciting. In Central Park a considerable num~ ber of public women can usually be seen among the crowd. EXTENT OF THE SOCIAL EVIL AMONG SPECIAL CLASSES The first and second class houses are used principally by well- to-do business men and officials, there being a growing practice among many merchants and government officials of spending their leisure hours in drinking tea or holding feasts or even conducting important conferences in these houses. Many men, who themselves have no interest in visiting the prostitutes, are compelled to go to these houses if they are to maintain valuable relations with business associates or political friends. Officials often send their automobiles and have women brought to their houses. A trustworthy gentleman states that often an official will give a feast for a famous courtesan in his own home excluding his wife and children who together with the neighbors and others have the privilege of peering in at the windows to see the excitement. Many of the older college students are making a practice of visiting these houses. In going through houses of all four classes we saw many students usually in groups of two or three in the rooms of the prostitutes. The practice is so general that it is a distinct problem and certain colleges have had to adopt very strict rules of discipline concerning it. The Army Medical i THE SOCIAL EVIL 257 College, for example, deducts 10 percent from final marks of any student who is seen in the segregated district. The soldiers are probably the most immoral of any class of men in China. They are certainly very much in evidence throughout the segregated district. It is said that many of them refuse to pay for the privileges that they enjoy and that the women and house managers have no way of getting satisfaction, for at present the military man has pretty much his own way in China. Conditions are particularly bad in the districts around the military camps: the soldiers at T’ung Hsien and in the camp northwest of Peking frequently visit married women in the near-by villages. In some villages it was found that practically every woman was receiving visitors. The customary price for such illicit relations was $1. Contrary to the common opinion regarding immoral living among the soldiers, a major at Nan Yuan maintained that only 3 percent of his men were infected with venereal disease. He claimed that the worst offenders in military camps are grooms, kitchen workers, or coolies, who, though wearing an incomplete uniform, are nevertheless sometimes mistaken for soldiers and thus bring an undeserved blame on the real soldiers. Vice is increasing not only among the rich, but also among house servants and other paid workers. What is taken up by the officials is readily copied by those in the lower ranks of society. Very immoral conditions are said to exist among the beggars. Lacking the money needed to patronize the licensed houses they cohabit with women of their own class and it is also said that many of them are sodomists. A prominent Chinese physician in Peking made this state- ment: “There is no chance for my friends to entertain or enjoy a relaxing social atmosphere at home. Very few of my friends use their homes for social or business purposes, and they see _no reason why they should not go to houses of prostitution Instead. A friend of mine in Tientsin, a compradore in a bank, a man of very high character, is compelled to go to these places to.do business. He takes it as a matter of fact and has no ObJECtion to it. Eighty percent of my friends go to such first class houses for purely social and business dealings.” THE BY-PRODUCT OF THE SOCIAL EVIL IN PEKING The obvious result of the increasing immoral life, especially among the officials, is that many of the nation’s present leaders are being robbed of their courage and integrity. It is extremely 258 PEKING: A SOCIAL SURVEY difficult for a man to hold high official rank without spending a very large part of his time in the licensed quarter attending din- ners and wasting his energy in late hours. Furthermore, the example of the officials Encourages vice throughout the nation. Gambling is also many times connected with the banquets and among high officials the stakes often run from $10,000 to $100,000. Last year one high official is reported to have lost $500,000 in one evening’s gambling at a summer resort near Peking. ' The spreading of venereal infection is another by-product of the habit of visiting prostitutes. It is impossible to accurately . estimate the amount of disease as the opinions and figures of different doctors vary tremendously. - A well-informed Chinese doctor says that among the lower classes in the city the general health of 90 percent is affected, while almost one-third of the students and better classes have or have had venereal disease. Ten percent of the out—patient cases of the Union Medical College Hospital are due to venereal disease. In the charitable hospitals of Peking and Tientsin more than 35 percent of the patients have diseases of syphilitic origin. A prominent foreign doctor of long experience in China said that fully one-half of the blindness in China is due to gonorrheal infection and that the people in China do not appreciate the seriousness of venereal disease. In one hospital in Peking nine-tenths of the adults who come for treatment have been infected by venereal disease. In another Peking hospital where the average daily clinic is 600 patients, 200 of whom are women, one-third of the patients have venereal infection. In one of the hospitals for women where 6,000 patients were treated last year, 250 were venereal cases. Of these all but 12 had been infected by their husbands or by the unsani~ tary practices of midwives. In discussing the question of venereal diseases in China, a prominent Chinese doctor said that they are not so virulent there as in the west, probably because of the racial immunity of the Chinese and the absence of any heavy drinking of intoxi- cating liquors. In connection with the social evil and the robust Chinese constitution, he also claimed that in China venereal dis- ease does not result in blindness or insanity as frequently as in the west nor are they contracted indirectly as often as in other countries. An interesting study of 4,000 married men made by Dr. W. G. Lennox of the Union Medical College throws some light on the question of venereal disease in Peking,1 even though the group represented only portions of the middle and lower classes being divided into the following groups: Students, I4 percent; servants, 180m: Vital Statistics—China Medical Journal—July, 1919. >' n l.‘ THE SOCIAL EVIL 259 15 percent; industrial workers, 11 percent; shopkeepers, 10 per- cent; farmers, 8 percent; coolies and hard workers, 7 percent. Twenty-two percent of the men examined admitted that they had had gonorrhea; syphilis 7.9 percent; both 3.9 percent. Deducting the 158 men who had had both at some time there were 1,0051r out of the 4,000 or a little more than 25 percent who admitted venereal infection, the statistics being obtained from questioning the men rather than by examination. Even so, the men seemed willing to answer the questions and apparently did not try to hide the fact that they had been infected. Those who say they have had gonorrhea contracted it on the average 6.7 years ago and those who have had syphilis 4.2 years ago; this means that most of these men have been infected since their marriage as they have been married on the average 14 ears. y Of 110 male servants examined for syphilis in 1919 by Dr. J. H. Korns, of the Union Medical College, Peking, 10, or approximately IO percent, showed a decidedly positive reaction, while only one (2 percent) of the 52 women servants whose blood was similarly examined reacted. The test for gonorrhea was positive for only two out of 119 males while in the case of 60 females none showed a positive reaction. Dr. A. Snell of Soochow, who has been doing routine blood tests for syphilis on all his in-patients, found a positive reaction in 40 percent of the cases, but of course hospital percentages cannot be taken as typical of the entire population. No similar study has been made of the patients in any Peking hospital. The dispensary of the Union Medical College is giving treat- ment for syphilis to civilians for $18 and to soldiers for $10. Most of those taking the treatment are about 30 years of age. Another effect of the social evil in China is the breakdown of marital bonds. The old patriarchal family is now in the process of dissolution and the single family unit will have diffi- culty in replacing it satisfactorily if there is a continued increase in the practice of visiting houses of prostitution and of taking secondary wives. PLURAL WIVES The practice of taking secondary wives or co-ncubines was common even before the founding of the Republic but has apparently become more prevalent since that time. It is even estimated that at least 80 percent of the officials have secondary wives and the taking of concubines has become a fad in Peking. One official is reported to buy a new concubine every month While many have harems of from 5 to 10 girls. Many of the officials boast of the number of wives they have very much as i r I 1’ 260 PEKING: A SOCIAL SURVEY in other countries gentlemen describe the spirited horses in their stables. If the concubines come from the first class houses of prostitution the men often pay from $5,000 to $10,000 for them. The custom of taking secondary wives is also spreading among the lower classes. A foreigner’s cook was even found to be supporting three wives at the same time. Apparently the eco- nomic burden is the only bar to the taking of extra wives. In spite of the extent of the practice the secondarywife has no standing under the law and no right in her husband’s property. If he dies she must leave his home unless his family are willing to support her. Her social standing is somewhat anomalous. The first or legal wife will never recognize her socially and so ' she must find her society among other secondary wives. Even so the prestige of being associated with a wealthy and powerful family gives her a position much above anything she has probably known in the past. On the other hand, no stigma is attached to her children who are all accepted as legitimate children and heirs of their father. RESCUE \VORK The Door of Hope1 In order to help modify the worst features of the licensed i '1 system of prostitution, the police department has established a rescue home for prostitutes known as the Door of Hope (Chi Liang So). Formerly it was in the South City at Wu Tao Miao, but has recently been moved to the northwestern part of the Manchu City, and combined with the \Vomen’s IndustriallHome (Nu Hsi I So) and the \Vomen’s Reformatory (Kan Hua So). There are four classes of people in these institutions; the inmates of the Industrial Home—dependent women who have been brought there by the police; small children who have been res- cued from kidnapers, from homes of opium smokers or from poor families; the inmates of the Door of Hope—women from 16 to 25 or 30 years of age, who either have been rescued from houses of ill fame or who have voluntarily left their former occupation and entered the Door of Hope; women prisoners who have been sentenced by the police for misconduct, and who are serving definite sentences under practically prison conditions. The number in the different institutions in August, 1919, was: Industrial Home, women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 The Door of Hope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 65 Women’s Reformatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 36 ‘See Appendix, Regulations of the Peking Door of Hope. .‘I THE SOCIAL EVIL 261 The buildings of the VVornen’s Reformatory and the Door of Hope are spacious and obviously designed to be developed into a large industrial school, the women of the Door of HOpe and of the Industrial Home working together in a large semi- modern, one-room building about 200 feet square. At present only about one—third of the building is used and apparently the only industry taught is sewing. Twenty or more Singer sewing machines are used by the women. The other buildings are of the usual Chinese style, rows of one—story rooms, surrounding large courtyards. Besides the living rooms, there are a few classrooms, where the younger inmates of these institutions receive common school education. A separate court is set aside for the children of the \Vomen’s Industrial Home, the youngest of whom is about 6 years old. All the buildings and courts of the Door of Hope and the Women’s Industrial Home are kept clean and in good order. Behind a row of the dormitory buildings of the Industrial Home and around a large inclosed court are those of the Women’s Reformatory. The women in this institution are closely guarded, and visitors are only allowed to look through the lattice doorway of the open court. The condition of the women in this institution is much worse than of those in the Door of Hope and the \Nomen’s Industrial Home. The court is not so clean and the clothing of the women is ragged and dirty. In one important respect, however, the inmates of the Women’s Reformatory have the advantage of those of the other institutions. Their sentence is for a definite period, while appar- ently the women in the Door of Hope and the Industrial Home cannot leave unless they are married. According to the police regulations any woman may be sent to the Door of Hope who has been forced into prostitution, who is badly treated by the manager of a house of prostitution or is not allowed her freedom, who desires to give up the practice of prostitution or who has no place to go or relatives who can support her, but she is admitted only after her case has been examined by the police_or by a court.1 Any prostitute who wants to enter the Door of Hope may bring her case to the attention of the police by a personal or written appeal to the head of any police district, by an appeal to any officer on duty or by going directly to the Door of Hope. Apparently applicants can be admitted only if there are vacancies in the home, as some time ago one police official stated that they had twice as many applicants as could be cared for In the institution the inmates are entirely under the super- vision of women though the head of the home is a man. Both 1 Regulations of the Pekingr Door of Hope, Art. 3—-See Appendix. 262 PEKING: A SOCIAL SURVEY educational and industrial work is given, the regulations calling for six hours of school work a day and stating that Chinese, moral teachings, arithmetic, art, cooking, drawing, calesthenics and music are to be taught, though it is doubtful that all the sub- jects are taught. Anything made by the inmates is to be sold and any amount received over and above the actual cost of material, etc., is to be given to the woman who made it. Apparently once she is admitted to the Door of Hope a woman is not allowed to leave until either her relatives are willing to assume her support or she is married, generally the latter. All of the women must be photo-graphed and ‘not only are the pictures hung in the photograph room where any one 'can inspect them but many of them are also put on a board outside the gate of the institution where passers-by can see them. Any one seeing a face that attracts him may ask the manager of the Door of Hope to allow him to see the girl and talk over with her the question of marriage. If both parties are satisfied the man must file an application blank with the police on which he must give his name, age, address, business and state whether he wantsthe woman as his wife or concubine. He must also be guaranteed by three shOps in the city. If the police investiga- tion of the matter proves the statements in the application to be correct, the wedding agreement is signed in duplicate, the original going to the woman and the copy being kept by the police. At the time of his marriage the man must make a con* tribution to the Door of Hope, the amopnt of which depends upon his ability to pay and the desirability of the girl he is marrying, and he is given an official receipt for this contribution. Ordinarily the official contribution amounts to anywhere from $10 to $200. .In the case of some specially desirable girl the unofi‘icial contributions are also apt to be large. In case some official finds he is unable to come to terms with the keeper of a brothel for the purchase of one of the inmates of the house he will often report to the police that the girl has been mis— treated by her manager. They will investigate the case and have the girl sent to the Door of Hope. Then after a time the official is allowed to marry her, of course for a financial con- sideration. According to the police report the budget of the Door of Hope amounted to $12,223 in 1917.1 It is impossible to give a fair criticism of the work of this institution without much more familiarity with it than is possible at present. However, the shamefaced appearance of a large number of the older girls, the large number of police guards connected with the institution, and the general character of the = See Appendix for detailed statement. 1. OP 2 2 THE SOCIAL EVIL M253 superintendents, would lead us to believe that much could prob— ably be done to humanize this so-called “Home.” But in spite of any criticisms that may be made, such a home by affording a means of escape tends to modify at least to a slight degree the life of many women of the red light district. And it is of special help in taking care of the children rescued from kidnapers and from the homes of opium smokers. REFORM The failure of the Social Reform Association to accomplish lasting results in moral reform shows the great difficulty of checking the social evil in Peking. This society was organized four years ago by Mr. Frank Yung T’ao to fight the three evils of concubinage, prostitution and gambling; its membership quickly rose to 17,000; public meetings were held at the Temple of Heaven, Central Park, and other places and they were well attended; the paper that was printed had promise of wide circulation, but the society has not functioned to any extent since the arrest and subsequent removal to Tientsin of its leader, " ' Mr. Yung T’ao. However, even in its short life it showed the '-- large number of people who are interested in social reform and who might be counted upon to rally to the support of a strong leader. ...
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