10 South Africa-powerpoint

10 South Africa-powerpoint - SFL 354 SFL 354 South African...

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Unformatted text preview: SFL 354 SFL 354 South African Families S.A. Historical Context S.A. Historical Context Colonized by Dutch, French and German in middle of 17th century. Governed by Netherlands and then Britain until 1961, when it become an independent republic. White minority governed the country until 1994, when it became a true democracy with equal representation for citizens of all races. S. A. Historical Context S. A. Historical Context Legacy of Apartheid (Afrikans for “apart­hood”) Prohibitions of mixed marriages Population Registration Act – every individual classified by race Group Areas Act – races divided and organized in communities or townships or homelands. Forced resettlement of Coloreds, Asians (primarily Indians), and Africans (by tribal/linguistic group) Separate Amenities Act – for Europeans and Non­ Europeans S. A. Historical Context S. A. Historical Context This legacy and historical influence on individual development is related to the Chronosystem, from Bronfenbrenner’s model. The Chronosystem includes time and socio­historical conditions linked to individual development…. S. A. Historical Context S. A. Historical Context This legacy and historical influence on individual development is related to the Chronosystem, from Bronfenbrenner’s model. The Chronosystem includes time and socio­historical conditions linked to individual development…. If this is what your parents or grandparents grew up with, how would it affect your upbringing even if Apartheid is abolished today? Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) The Biological contribution to individual development (e.g., sex, health, age, personality or temperament). Relevant factors for South Africa: Possibility of AIDS infection for children Poor fit between difficult child temperament and stressed and/or low SES parent(s) Poverty related health problems Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) The Microsystem – a pattern of activities, roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by the developing person in a given setting with particular physical and material characteristics. The Microsystem involves the direct, face­to­face contacts between child and immediate influences and the resulting behaviors (e.g., dependence, competition). Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) The Microsystem consists of elements or influences such as: Health Services – limited availability especially in rural areas. Brain/skill drain of medical professionals is particularly distressing due to AIDS epidemic Church groups and traditional tribal beliefs Peers – positive and negative peers (high rate of sexual assaults reported by girls/women) School – more limited in rural areas due to lack of economic support and past discrimination under Apartheid Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Immediate Family: Relatively short life span for adults due to AIDS (48 years is 2010 estimate). Leads to grandparent families. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Immediate Family: Relatively short life span for adults due to AIDS (48 years is 2010 estimate). Leads to grandparent families. High past and present levels of migration of men to work in cities. Absent fathers contributes to high numbers of single­ mother and extended family structures in rural communities. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Immediate Family: Relatively short life span for adults due to AIDS (48 years is 2010 estimate). Leads to grandparent families. High past and present levels of migration of men to work in cities. Absent fathers contributes to high numbers of single­ mother and extended family structures in rural communities. Possibility of half­siblings (legitimate due to polygamy or illegitimate due to concubinage). Lowered stigma on illegitimate births makes it easy to integrate children into the mother’s family. Possibility of sibling rivalry and less investment by father figure in children that are not his. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Immediate Family: Relatively short life span for adults due to AIDS (48 years is 2010 estimate). Leads to grandparent families. High past and present levels of migration of men to work in cities. Absent fathers contributes to high numbers of single­ mother and extended family structures in rural communities. Possibility of half­siblings (legitimate due to polygamy or illegitimate due to concubinage). Lowered stigma on illegitimate births makes it easy to integrate children into the mother’s family. Possibility of sibling rivalry and less investment by father figure in children that are not his. Parenting style tends to be authoritarian Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Immediate Family: Relatively short life span for adults due to AIDS (48 years is 2010 estimate). Leads to grandparent families. High past and present levels of migration of men to work in cities. Absent fathers contributes to high numbers of single­ mother and extended family structures in rural communities. Possibility of half­siblings (legitimate due to polygamy or illegitimate due to concubinage). Lowered stigma on illegitimate births makes it easy to integrate children into the mother’s family. Possibility of sibling rivalry and less investment by father figure in children that are not his. Parenting style tends to be authoritarian Decline in parental authority and children’s respect (p. 375) Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Neighborhood: Majority (57%) live in non­urban settings. Urban families are more likely nucleated while rural families are more likely to be multi­generational. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Microsystemic influence of Neighborhood: Majority (57%) live in non­urban settings. Urban families are more likely nucleated while rural families are more likely to be multi­generational. High crime rates ­ surveys show as many as 1/3 women report having been raped in past year. SA ranks 2nd for murder and for assault and rape out of 50+ nations in UN study. Gated communities highly valued by middle class and many emigrants from SA report high crime rates as major factor for decision to leave Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Mesosystem– comprises the interrelations among 2 or more settings in which the developing person actively participates. Conceptual notion that there are linkages and processes taking place between 2 or more of the microsystem­level influences. No specific application to SA population needed Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Exosystem – one or more settings that do not involve the developing person as an active participant, but in which events occur that affect, or are affected by, what happens in the setting containing the developing person. environment that child interacts with, without being a part of, that impact his/her development. At this level, events occur that indirectly influence processes within the person’s immediate setting. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Exosystem examples include “peer spillover” effect and the “work spillover” effect. Exosystemic influences include: Family Friends Neighbors Mass Media Extended family – may be microsystemic for this group Social welfare services – limited availability, over a 1 million AIDS orphans Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Macrosystem (1993 definition) – consists of the overarching pattern of micro/meso and exosystemic characteristics of a given culture, with particular reference to the belief systems, resources, hazards, lifestyles, opportunity structures, life course options and patterns of social exchange that are embedded in the overarching systems. The most removed, the most abstract­level influences. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Relevant Macrosystemic values: Patriarchy – results in uneven division­of­labor. Even with greater workforce participation by women, there is 2nd shift. Socialization that men are “undisputed heads of household” ­ supported scripturally/religiously. Wives responsible for 58% of household tasks (13 daily, 10 weekly and 2 occasional) while men were found to be responsible for 1 daily, 5 weekly and 10 occasional tasks. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Relevant Macrosystemic values: Maturity – rite of passage to adulthood at puberty. Rites differ between tribes with the Zulus presenting boys with food taboos and instruction about sexual behavior. Ndebele boys may receive an animal as a token of manhood and receive instruction on paternal duties and how to negotiate polygamous disputes. Initiation schools where boys are circumcised and trained on adult responsibilities. Problems occur with initiates’ death due to lack of hygiene, disruption in academics, and some kidnappings. Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to Bronfenbrenner’s Model applied to South Africa (African racial group) Relevant Macrosystemic values: Equality (perhaps making up for Apartheid), as evidenced by laws supporting gender equity in: Terms of property rights Equal rights to initiate divorce Equal division of accrued assets and equal parental rights at divorce As evidenced by laws protecting children against neglect, abuse and exploitative work practices. As evidenced by family policy laws related to maternity leave, freedom from domestic violence, etc.. Other Concepts to Know Other Concepts to Know Other terms to know and understand (from Bronfenbrenner’s Model): Ecological transition Ecological validity Developmental validity From SA chapter: Arranged Marriage in Indian subgroup Practice of Ilobolo or bridewealth Role of grandparents in African community (p. 376) ...
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This document was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course PSYCH 341 at BYU.

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