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Chapter2-2 - CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter II Atoms Molecules and...

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8/28/2011 1 1 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter II Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2 The Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) developed the modern periodic table. Argued that elemental properties are periodic functions of atomic weights . We now know that element properties are periodic functions of the ATOMIC NUMBERS . Periods & Groups 3 A vertical column on the periodic table is a group or family of elements. A horizontal row on the periodic table is a period or series of elements There are 18 groups and 7 periods on the periodic table.
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8/28/2011 2 4 Regions of the Periodic Table Metals Metalloids Nonmetals 5 Group 1A: Alkali Metals Cutting sodium metal Elements in the leftmost column, Group 1A, are known as the alkali metals (except H). All the alkali metals are solids at room temperature and all are reactive with water to produce hydrogen and basic solutions. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs 6 Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra The second group in the periodic table, Group 2A, is also composed entirely of metals that occur naturally only in compounds. Their oxides (such as lime, CaO) form alkaline solutions ; hence, they are known as the alkaline earth metals . Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are the seventh and fifth most abundant elements in the earth’ s crust, respectively Burning magnesium metal
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8/28/2011 3 7 Group 3A B, Al, Ga, In, Tl Gallium is one of the few metals that can be liquid close to room temp. Group 3A (aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium) are metals , whereas boron (B) is a metalloid . Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth’ s crust at 8.2% by mass. 8 Group 4A C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb In Group 4A there is a nonmetal , carbon, two metalloids , silicon and germanium, and two metals , tin and lead Carbon allotropes (structural modifications of an element).
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