Chapter2-2 - 8/28/2011 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter II Atoms,...

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8/28/2011 1 1 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter II Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2 The Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) developed the modern periodic table. Argued that elemental properties are periodic functions of atomic weights . We now know that element properties are periodic functions of the ATOMIC NUMBERS . 3 A vertical column on the periodic table is a group or family of elements. A horizontal row on the periodic table is a period or series of elements There are 18 groups and 7 periods on the periodic table.
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8/28/2011 2 4 Regions of the Periodic Table Metals Metalloids Nonmetals 5 Group 1A: Alkali Metals Cutting sodium metal • Elements in the leftmost column, Group 1A, are known as the alkali metals (except H). • All the alkali metals are solids at room temperature and all are reactive with water to produce hydrogen and basic solutions. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs 6 Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra • The second group in the periodic table, Group 2A, is also composed entirely of metals that occur naturally only in compounds. • Their oxides (such as lime, CaO) form alkaline solutions ; hence, they are known as the alkaline earth metals . • Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are the seventh and fifth most abundant elements in the earth’s crust, respectively Burning magnesium metal
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8/28/2011 3 7 Group 3A B, Al, Ga, In, Tl Gallium is one of the few metals that can be liquid close to room temp. • Group 3A (aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium) are metals , whereas boron (B) is a metalloid . • Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust at 8.2% by mass. 8 Group 4A C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb In Group 4A there is a nonmetal , carbon, two metalloids , silicon and germanium, and two metals , tin and lead Carbon allotropes (structural modifications of an element). Diamond
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course CHEM 1307 at Texas Tech.

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Chapter2-2 - 8/28/2011 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter II Atoms,...

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