MCLawCh3notes - laws .S.Constitutionare ,butthatisa misnomer

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Basic concepts needed to understand when  and how the First Amendment guarantees  freedom to communications practitioners and  when it restricts the applicability of other  laws.
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The first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution are  commonly referred to as the  Bill of Rights , but that is a  misnomer because they describe freedoms and liberties, but  not rights. Freedoms , or liberties, are exercised by individuals without  restrictions from government. A freedom limits the actions   a government can use against its citizens. Rights  (civil rights) are privileges and immunities  guaranteed to U.S. citizens, which the national government  and the individual state governments must protect from  arbitrary infringement.
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Freedoms  are inherent by virtue of U.S. citizenship  and both federal and state governments must do  nothing that violates such freedoms as are expressed  in the  Bill of Rights . Civil Rights require federal and state government  action to protect. Most important to remember is that there are no  laws based on the First Amendment, for the reasons  expressed above, that restrict the conduct of any  private individual or corporation.
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States are not required to provide all of the freedoms  described in the Bill of Rights Can cause conflict between state laws and First Amendment  liberties Not until the end of the 19 th  century did the U.S.  Supreme Court impose the basic requirements of the  Bill of Rights  on both the federal and state governments Concepts of “freedom of speech” and “freedom of the press”  did not have any significant meaning until 1920’s and 1930’s Idea that these freedoms should be considered clear limitations  on federal or state governmental actions evolved slowly
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Gitlow v. New York   (1925) First time U.S. Supreme Court recognized freedom of speech as  a fundamental liberty Near v. Minnesota   (1931) First time U.S. Supreme Court recognized freedom of the press  from prior restraint as a fundamental freedom subject to full  constitutional protection from restriction by state laws Process of Absorption  ( Incorporation ) is the process  by which the U.S. Supreme Court recognizes a specific  freedom  as fundamental and therefore given  constitutional protection from state government  intrusion.
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Principles of Incorporation Essentially 5 paradigms that dominate application of  incorporation: Case-by-case fairness Selective Incorporation Selective Incorporation “Plus” Total Incorporation Total Incorporation “Plus” See Exhibit 3.1 on page 64 in text for summary
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Case-by-Case Fairness
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  • Spring '08
  • Parksinson
  • First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution,  Government

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