Chapter 9-10_Attention_Memory

Chapter 9-10_Attention_Memory - Chapter 9 Attention and...

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Chapter 9 Attention and Performance
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Attention Associated w/ consciousness, awareness, & cognitive effort as they relate to the performance of skills Focus on its limitations during : multiple task performance detection of relevant info Exceeding capacity results in a decrement of performance (creates interference)
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Attention Selective Attention Allocation of attentional resources to different inputs or tasks Intentional Attentional Focusing Involuntary
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Attention and Types of Processing Controlled processing Slow Attention- demanding Serial Voluntary e.g. Counting backwards by 17 Automatic processing Fast Not attention demanding Parallel Involuntary e.g. Counting backwards by 1
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Types of Interference Structural Interference Results when two physical or neurological structures are the source of the decrement Capacity Interference Decrement in performance due to some limitation in the central capacity
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Theories of Attention Filter Theories (a.k.a. bottleneck theories) Difficulty doing multiple tasks simultaneously because of limitation due to serial processing of multiple stimuli [see Fig. 9-1] Alternative Theories (Resource capacity theories) Difficulty doing multiple tasks simultaneously because of limitation due to availability of resources needed to carry out tasks i.e. resource capacity limits Simultaneous performance of multiple tasks can occur as long as the resource capacity limits not exceeded
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Theories of Attention Central Resource Capacity Theories Propose one central (i.e., CNS) source of attention resources for which all activities requiring attention compete Kahneman‘s Attention Theory: An Example of a Central Resource Capacity Theory Equates attention with ―cognitive effort‖ Proposed flexible attention capacity limits
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Theories of Attention How we are able to perform multiple tasks at the same time
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Multiple-Resource Theory Alternative to theories proposing one central resource Propose that we have several attention mechanisms
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course ESS 3303 at Texas Tech.

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Chapter 9-10_Attention_Memory - Chapter 9 Attention and...

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