Zeng PP (1) - High School Students’ Attitudes toward High...

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Unformatted text preview: High School Students’ Attitudes toward High Physical Education from Four Boroughs of New York City New Howard Z. Zeng1, Raymond W. Leung1, Michael Hipscher1, & Raymond Craig Stanco2, George Zanotto3 Craig Brooklyn College, the City University of New York, NY; 2 Franklin D. Roosevelt High School, Brooklyn, NY; and Franklin 3 Brooklyn Technical High School, Brooklyn, NY. 1 1 I ntroduction-1 Since 1990, there has been an increase in the Since body of knowledge in PE in terms of student PE attitudes. The increase in interest may also be attitudes The attributed to the influence of attitudes toward further participation in physical activities after further school (Carlson, 1995; Ennis, 1996; papaioannou, 1994; Portm 1995; Tannehill, & Zakrajsek, 1993) a an, nd Portm out of school that related to students’ achievement in athletics activities (Graham, 1995; achievement L ee, 1997; Silverman, 1993; Subramaniam & Silverman, 2000; 2007). 2000; 2 Introduction-2 Stucky-Ropp and DiLorenzo (1993) reported that (1993) Stucky-Ropp enjoyment in physical activity classes appears to enjoyment be associated with both girls and boys. Students who have hated gym classes may select to avoid participation in physical activities (PA) in their daily life (Carlson, 1995; Portman, 1995). Silverman and Subramaniam (1999) also reported that students tend to participate in PA they most get pleasure from. get 3 Introduction-3 I dentifying and understanding factors that associate with Identifying children’s PA participation is critical to promoting children’s current and lifelong physical activity participation of children (Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000). A mong many factors, children’s attitudes are considered to be a key element influencing PA participation to (Biddle & Mutrie, 2001; Hagger, Chatzisarantis, & Biddle, 2002; Solmon, 2003; Subramaniam & Silverman, 2002). 4 Introduction-4 Children who have more positive attitudes toward Children PA are reported to be more likely to participate in physical activity outside of school (Biddle & Chatzisarantis, 1999; Chung & Phillips, 2002; Hagger et al., 2002; McKenzie, 2003; Portman, 2003) and al., demonstrate higher PA amounts (Hagger, Cale, & higher Almond, 1995) than those with less positive A lmond, attitudes. 5 Introduction-5 A ccording to the literature on the topic of According students’ attitudes toward PE, most of the previous research targeted elementary school children. Children at the elementary level, however, tend to report inflated physical activity ability, interest, and attitude due to their limited developmental ability to selftheir evaluate. evaluate. 6 Introduction-6 I n contrast, secondary school In children’s self-reports were more realistic (Lee, 2004). Thus, it would be meaningful to examine secondary school children’s attitudes toward physical activity. physical 7 The significance of this study New Y ork City is the most populous and diverse city New in the US. The City is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. The city comprises five boroughs: Brooklyn, Bronx, Brooklyn Bronx Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. New Y ork Manhattan Queens and Staten New City also includes the largest population of immigrants from over 180 countries who help make it one of the most cosmopolitan places on earth. cosmopolitan 8 Cont. More significantly, New Y ork City contains More the largest public school system in the public country, with over 1 million students being taught in 1,200 separate schools. No studies, however, have been conducted that examine students’ attitudes toward PE and activities students’ preference in a city like New Y ork, where both the educational system and the students’ population possess the most diverse characteristics on earth. 9 Purpose Thus, the purpose of this study was to Thus, investigate the current status of attitudes toward PE and activities of the high school toward students in the public schools from four boroughs of New Y ork City; boroughs and to provide meaningful information to help PE professionals improve their curriculum and programs. curriculum 10 Methods Participants The current study was conducted during the The 2007-2008 fall and spring semesters. Ten public high schools were selected from four boroughs (Mahhaton was not included) of New Y ork City in the US. A total of 728 9th -12th grade students (249 boys and 479 girls) voluntarily participated in this study. Their ages were 15-19 yrs (M =16.78 yrs, study. SD =1.02 yrs). 11 Cont. The physical education (PE) curricular requirements and The standards as outlined by the state and school districts were: (a) basic motor and manipulative skills, cardio respiratory endurance, flexibility, muscular strength, endurance, and body composition; (b) to participate in endurance, (b) physical activities that develop physical fitness skills; demonstrate fundamental motor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills; understand the effects of activity on the body and the risks associated with inactivity; understand the relationship between physical activity and individual well being; (c) students will have the necessary individual knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness, participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health (New Y ork State Education Department, 2007). 12 Cont. The students had one PE class per day, five The days per week. A ttention was focused on the high school level because biological developments in adolescence and social environmental factors led to changes in their perception and behavior. Moreover, PE was one of the courses in the high school curricula being ignored due to the emphasis on academic performance (e.g. the state exam). the 13 Cont. Questionnaires Two questionnaires were employed and administered. The Two first questionnaire was the Physical Education Activity Attitude Scale (PEAAS) adopted by Zeng (2009) and originally Attitude developed by Adams (1963) and V aldez (1997). I t is a paper and pencil self-report questionnaire with a 5-point Likert-type scale with responses ranging from 1 (Strongly Agree) to 5 (Strongly Disagree) summed across 20 items, resulting in a range of scores from 20 to 100. A score of 20 indicates the most negative attitude; 21-40 indicates a negative attitude; 41most 60 indicates a neutral attitude; 61-80 indicates a positive 60 attitude; and 81-100 indicates the most positive attitude (See Appendix A). A ppendix 14 Cont. The second questionnaire was the The Physical Education/Activities Preference Questionnaire (See Preference Appendix B) with a Cronbach A ppendix A lpha reliability coefficient of .92, an intraclass correlation coefficient of .90, and a scale validity coefficient of .93. coefficient 15 Results Results showed mean PEAAS scores of 68.600 (M =3.430 + .919), indicating 68.600 participants’ overall positive ATPE. The five items with the highest scores were The items 2, 16, 18, 14 and 11 with M =4.144 +.923; M =4.136 +.834; M = 4.118 +.920; M =4.027 +.929 and M =4.001 +.791, respectively. 16 Results -2 These questions related to how the participants These feel about PE classes and exercises on ‘benefits’, feel ’, ‘degree of seriousness’ ‘perception’ and ‘value.’ These factors compose the most essential driving power that structures ATPE. power 17 Results-3 A s for sports/activities preference, 59.20 % of students 59.20 As reported preferring team sports, team 25.55 % of students reported preferring individual 25.55 sports, and sports and 15.25% of students reported preferring dual game sports. sports Aerobic exercises were ranked as favorite, with dance dance coming in second (41.21 % and 22.25 % respectively). 22.25 coming Weight Lifting came in third with 17.86 %, followed by 17.86 Outdoor Adventures and Martial Arts. Outdoor Martial 18 Conclusion 1. I n summary, the current ATPE status of the In participants from the four boroughs is participants positive. 2. The crucial factors that structure ATPE are 2. The ‘benefits’, ‘degree of seriousness’, ‘perception’, and ‘value’ regarding their PE classes and daily physical exercises. 19 Cont. 3. The participants’ sports/activities preferences are: team sports, individual sports, dual game sports, aerobic exercises, dance, weight lifting, outdoor adventures, and martial arts. and 20 Selected References Adams, R. S. (1963). Two scales for measuring attitude toward physical education. Research Quarterly, 34, 91-94. Adams, Research Birtwistle, G. E., & Brodie, D. A. (1991). Children's attitudes towards activity and perceptions of physical Birtwistle, education. Health Education Research, 6, 465-478. Health 6, Carlson, T. B. (1995). We hate gym: Student alienation from physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Carlson, Education, 4, 467-477. Education 4, Chung, M., & Phillips, D. A. (2002). The relationship between attitude toward physical education and leisureChung, education time exercise in high school students. Physical Educator, 59, 126-138. time Physical 126-138. Colley, A., Comber, C., & Hargreaves, D. J. (1994). Gender effects in school subject preferences: A research note. Educational Studies, 20, 13-18. Educational 13-18. Greenwood, M., & Stillwell, J. (2001). Activity preferences of middle school physical education students. Physical Educator, 58, 26-29. Educator, 26-29. Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Biddle, J. H. (2002). A meta-analytic review of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in physical activity: Predictive validity and the contribution of additional variable. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24 , 3-32. Journal Hick, M. K., Wiggins, M. S., Crist, R. W., & Moode, F. M. (2001). Sex differences in grade three students’ Hick, attitudes toward physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93, 97-102. Perceptual 97-102. Koca, C., & Demirhan, G. (2004). An examination of high school students' attitudes toward physical education with regard to gender and sport participation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98, 754-758. 98, Lee, A. M. (2004). Promoting lifelong physical activity through quality physical education. Journal of Physical Lee, Education, Recreation & Dance. 75, 21-26. Education, Malina, R. M. (2001a). Physical activity and fitness: Pathways from childhood to adulthood. American Journal of Malina, Human Biology, 13, 162-172. Human McKenzie, T. L. (2003). Health-related physical education: Physical, activity fitness, and wellness. In S. J. McKenzie, Silverman & C. D. Ennis (Eds.), Student learning in physical education: Applying research to enhance instruction (pp. 207-226). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. instruction New York State Education Department. (2007). The New York State Education Department Physical Education New Profile. From http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/pe/profile From 21 ...
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