Unformatted text preview: 23 Trees
Professor SinMin Lee Contents
Introduction
Introduction
s The 23 Trees Rules
s The Advantage of 23 Trees
s Searching For an Item in a 23 Tree
s Inserting an Item into a 23 Tree
s Removing an Item from a 23 Tree
Removing
s INTRODUCTION
What Is a 23 Tree?
s Definition: A 23 tree is a tree in which
Definition:
each internal node(nonleaf) has either 2 or 3
children, and all leaves are at the same
level.
level.
s 23 Trees
•a node may contain 1 or 2 keys
•all leaf nodes are at the same depth
•all nonleaf nodes (except the root) have either 1 key and
two subtrees, or 2 keys and three subtrees
•insertion is at the leaf: if the leaf overflows, split it into
two leaves, insert them into the parent, which may also
overflow
•deletion is at the leaf: if the leaf underflows (has no
items), merge it with a sibling, removing a value and
subtree from the parent, which may also underflow
•the only changes in depth are when the root splits or
underflows A 23 Tree of height 3 23 Tree vs. Binary Tree
A 23 tree is not a binary tree since a node
23
in the 23 tree can have three children.
in
s A 23 tree does resemble a full binary tree.
s If a 23 tree does not contain 3nodes, it is
If
like a full binary tree since all its internal
nodes have two children and all its leaves
are at the same level.
are
s Cont.
If a 23 tree does have three children, the
If
tree will contain more nodes than a full
binary tree of the same height.
s Therefore, a 23 tree of height h has at least
Therefore,
2^h  1 nodes.
2^h
s In other words, a 23 tree with N nodes
In
never has height greater then log (N+1), the
minimum height of a binary tree with N
nodes.
nodes.
s Example of a 23 Tree
s The items in the 23 are ordered by their
The
search keys.
search
50 70 20 10 30 90 40 60 120 80 100 110 150 160 Node Representation of 23 Trees
s Using a typedef statement
Using typedef
typedef treeNode* ptrType;
treeNode*
struct treeNode
struct
{ treeItemType SmallItem,LargeItem;
treeItemType
ptrType
LChildPtr, MChildPtr,
ptrType
RChildPtr;
RChildPtr;
};
}; Node Representation of 23 Tree
(cont.)
When a node contains only one data item,
When
you can place it in SmallItem and use
LChildPtr and MChildPtr to point to the
node’s children.
node’s
s To be safe, you can place NULL in
To
NULL
RChildPtr.
RChildPtr.
s The Advantages of the 23 trees
Even though searching a 23 tree is not
Even
more efficient than searching a binary
search tree, by allowing the node of a 23
tree to have three children, a 23 tree might
be shorter than the shortest possible binary
search tree.
search
s Maintaining the balance of a 23 tree is
Maintaining
relatively simple than maintaining the
balance of a binary search tree .
s Consider the two trees contain
the same data items.
50 60
30 90
30 10 50 20 40 80 70 70 90 100
10 20 40 A balanced binary search tree A 23 tree 60 80 100 Inserting into a 23 Tree
Perform a sequence of insertions on a 23
Perform
tree is more easilier to maintain the balance
than in binary search tree.
than
s Example:
s 60
90 30
30 50
40 20 80 100 70 39
38
37
36
35
34 1) The binary search tree after a sequence of
insertions 37
50 34 30 10 20 35 39 36 38 70 40 2) The 23 tree after the same insertions. 60 80 90 100 Inserting into a 23 Tree (cont.)
s Insert 39. The search for 39 terminates at
Insert
the leaf <40>. Since this node contains only
one item, can siply inser the new item into
50
this node
this
70 30
10
20 39 40 60 90
80 100 Inserting into a 23 Tree (cont.)
s Insert 38: The search terminates at <39 40>.
Insert
Since a node cannot have three values, we
divide these three values into smallest(38),
middle(39), and largest(40) values. Now,
we move the (39) up to the node’s parent.
we
30 10 20 39 38 40 Inserting into a 23 Tree (cont.)
s Insert 37: It’s easy since 37 belongs in a leaf
Insert
that currently contains only one values, 38.
that
30 10 20 37 39 38 40 The Insertion Algorithm
To insert an item I into a 23 tree, first
To
locate the leaf at which the search for I
would terminate.
would
s Insert the new item I into the leaf.
s If the leaf now contains only two items,
you are done. If the leaf contains three
items, you must split it.
items,
s The Insertion Algorithm (cont.)
s Spliting a leaf a) P SM L b) M P S P L
P SM L M S L Deleting from a 23 Tree
The deletion strategy for a 23 tree is the
The
inverse of its insertion strategy. Just as a 23
tree spreads insertions throughout the tree
by splitting nodes when they become too
full, it spreads deletions throughout the tree
by merging nodes when they become
empty.
empty.
s Example:
s Deleting from a 23 Tree (cont.)
s Delete 70
80
60 80 90
100 70 Swap with inorder successor
80
60 90
100 60 90  100 Delete value from leaf
90
60 80 100 Merge nodes by deleting empty leaf and moving 80 down Deleting from 23 Tree (cont.)
s Delete 70
50
90 30 10 20 40 60 80 100 Deleting from 23 Tree (cont.)
s Delete 100
90 60
60 80 80 90
 Delete value from leaf 60 80 Doesn’t work 60 90
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 Spring '08
 WANG
 Computer Science, Harshad number, 23 tree

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