Class Chapter 04 Lecture Presentation

Class Chapter 04 Lecture Presentation - Chapter 4 Carbon...

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Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
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Learning Objectives: 1. To describe how carbon’s electron configuration explains its ability to form large, complex, diverse organic molecules. 2. To describe how carbon skeletons may vary and explain how this variation contributes to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules. 3. To distinguish among the three types of isomers: structural, geometric, and enantiomer. 4. To name the seven major functional groups found in organic molecules and describe the basic structure of each functional group.
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Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life Although the composition of cells is 70–95% water, the rest of the cell is made up of chemical compounds that are based mostly on the element carbon. Of all the chemical elements, carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and diverse molecules. Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter from inanimate material are all composed of carbon atoms bonded to one another and to atoms of other elements.
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Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life Hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and phosphorous (P) are other common elements of these compounds, but it is the element carbon (C) that accounts for the large diversity of biological molecules that we find in living organisms.
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Concept 4.1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds . Organic compounds range from simple molecules, such as methane (CH 4 ) to colossal ones, such as proteins, with thousands of atoms. Most organic compounds contain hydrogen (H) atoms in addition to carbon (C) atoms.
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Concept 4.1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds The overall percentages of the major elements of life – C, H, O, N, S and P – are quite uniform from one organism to another. However, because of carbon’s versatility, this limited assortment of building blocks, taken in roughly the same proportions, can be used to build an inexhaustible variety of organic molecules.
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Concept 4.2: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms Electron configuration is the key to an atom’s chemical characteristics. Electron configuration determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms. Carbon has 6 electrons, with 2 in the first electron shell and 4 in the second shell. With 4 valence electrons in a shell that holds 8, carbon can form four covalent bonds by sharing its electrons with a variety of atoms so that 8 electrons are present.
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The Formation of Bonds with Carbon This tetravalence (tetra means 4) is one facet of carbon’s versatility that makes large, complex molecules possible.
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Class Chapter 04 Lecture Presentation - Chapter 4 Carbon...

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