Lecture 3 - Midterm Exam Midterm Exam This Monday 8/1 Test...

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1 Midterm Exam Midterm Exam Midterm Exam This Monday 8/1 Test is administered in Osmond, Rooms 201/202 20 multiple choice questions, 75 minutes You will be provided an equation sheet You can write your own equation sheet: 8.5x11 sheet with relevant info & no reprints of multiple choice questions About 1/5 of the questions are entirely conceptual About 2/3 of the questions are (just about) directly from HW questions, recitations, quizzes, and lecture examples
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2 Relativity Relativity Lecture 5: Relativity Reading: Ch. 37 Sec. 2-12 Main Idea: Light travels at a finite speed, a fact that prodded Einstein and others to question fundamental aspects of Newton's mechanics. The experimental confirmations of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity heralded the era of modern physics.
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3 What Einstein thought (now known to be true) What Einstein thought (now known to be true) Whether or not you are “at rest” is subjective (“at rest” with respect to what??). The laws of physics governing the world you observe are the same regardless ( “relativity” ) → Airplanes cross the globe → The world is turning → Earth orbits the sun → Sun orbits galactic center → Entire universe is expanding Consequence: the speed of light, predicted by Maxwell's equations, is the same in all inertial frames (i.e. constant velocity frames). Consequence: accelerating a mass to the speed of light requires an infinite amount of energy → c is the fastest speed in the universe
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4 Out of respect for Newton. .. Out of respect for Newton. .. • Einstein's relativity changes the nature of space (and time). Measurements of objects and events depend on the motion of the observer making the measurement. • Other scientists before Einstein opted to postulate the existence of a substance deemed “aether” that permeated the universe. Aether determined the “absolute” rest frame. → They did not want to contradict Newton's mechanics, which assumes that space and time are a “stage” for Newton's laws (Euclidian 3-D space) in which measurements of force in different reference frames agree.
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5 Newtonian relative motion: Galilean transformations Newtonian relative motion: Galilean transformations • The overused train example of relative motion: v v measured = v Mario v x Mario = x Eminem vt F = Δ p Δ t = m Δ v Δ t Galilean coordinate transformation
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Newtonian relative motion: Galilean transformations Newtonian relative motion: Galilean transformations • Another experiment: Mario shoots a laser beam v v measured = c v Eminem measures velocity greater than c in Newtonian picture, but light travels with speed c in all inertial frames. c
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course PHYS 214 at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Lecture 3 - Midterm Exam Midterm Exam This Monday 8/1 Test...

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