Lecture 5 - Final Exam Midterm Exam Friday 8/12, 8AM Test...

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1 Final Exam Final Exam Midterm Exam Friday 8/12, 8AM Test is administered in 119 Osmond 25 multiple choice questions, 110 minutes You will be provided an equation sheet You can write your own equation sheet: 8.5x11 sheet with relevant info & no reprints of multiple choice questions About 1/5 of the questions are entirely conceptual About 2/3 of the questions are (just about) directly from HW questions, recitations, labs, quizzes, and lecture examples
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2 Electrons and Atoms Electrons and Atoms Lecture 8: Electrons and Atoms Reading: Ch. 40 Main Idea: Schroedinger's quantum mechanics is applied to the Coulomb interaction between electrons and nuclei. The theory is verified and confirms all experimental observations in chemistry.
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3 Conceptual Perspective Conceptual Perspective Quantum physics starts with de Broglie relation: → characterizes wave properties of matter → only objects with very small momenta will behave like a wave Schroedinger's theory generalizes de Broglie's idea, allows us to find wavefunctions for quantum systems Electrons trapped in quantum systems: → have quantized energies, think: standing waves → transition between energy states by absorbing and emitting photons → obey Pauli Exclusion Principle, have “spin” either + or - E = −ℏ 2 2 m d 2 d x 2 V x   x ,t = x e i E t /ℏ P x ,t dx =∣ x ,t ∣ 2 dx = h / p
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4 Periodic Table of Elements Periodic Table of Elements Grouping on the table are related to how the electrons are configured in the quantum system
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5 Schroedinger's Equation for hydrogen system Schroedinger's Equation for hydrogen system Starting with 1 electron, 1 proton, and the Coulomb potential in 3 dimensions: Above: 3D representations, bright spots are high prob, Left: orbital 3d (n=3, ℓ=2)
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6 What you see in a chemistry book What you see in a chemistry book These shapes that predict the regions within the atom where the electron is most likely to be measured are derived from Schroedinger's equation.
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7 Quantized energy levels in hydrogen Quantized energy levels in hydrogen Schroedinger (and Bohr) gave us the quantized energy levels in the hydrogen system. → Energy of a hydrogen atom depends only on principle quantum number n Spectral series of hydrogen → incident light is absorbed at particular wavelengths → photons emitted at those same particular wavelengths The most common transitions carry the names of the scientists that studied them E n = me 4 8 0 2 h 2 1 n 2 = − 13.6 eV n 2 E high E low = hf =− 13.6 eV  1 n low 2 1 n high 2
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8 Hydrogen spectra Hydrogen spectra Spectral series of hydrogen → Lyman: n l o w = 1, Balmer: n l o w = 2, Paschen: n l o w = 3 E high E low = hf =− 13.6 eV  1 n low 2 1 n high 2 `
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9 Balmer's equation and the Rydberg constant Balmer's equation and the Rydberg constant Another early 1900's scientific mystery: why does
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Lecture 5 - Final Exam Midterm Exam Friday 8/12, 8AM Test...

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