102SN4 - Biology 102 Study Notes Exam 4 Chapter 33 Animal...

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Kevin Kelleher, MTC Biology 102 Study Notes Exam 4 1 Biology 102 Study Notes Exam 4 Chapter 33: Animal Organization & Homeostasis Levels of Organization - the levels of organization are: cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems - the structure and function of each level depends on structure and function of organ, tissue, and cell type Four Major Types of Tissue - epithelial tissue covers body surfaces and lines body cavities - connective tissue binds and supports body parts - muscular tissue causes body parts to move - nervous tissue responds to stimuli and transmits impulses Epithelial Tissues - epithelial tissue forms a continuous layer over body surfaces including inner cavities - squamous epithelium : flat cells (e.g., air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries) - cuboidal epithelium : cube-shaped cells - columnar epithelium : elongated cells resembling columns (e.g., small intestine) - epithelium varies in the number of cell layers o simple epithelium has one cell layer; all cells contact a basement membrane o pseudostratified epithelium appears layered but actually, all cells contact the basement membrane o stratified epithelium is composed of more than one layer of cells - ciliated epithelium cells are covered with cilia (e.g., lining of human respiratory tract); cilia can bend and move material over the surface of the epithelium - secretory epithelia can be unicellular or have multicellular glands o exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts or directly into a tube or cavity o endocrine glands secrete their product directly into the bloodstream - epithelium forms the outer layer of skin of animals - epithelial tissue cells are packed tightly; they join to one another in one of three ways: o tight junctions have plasma proteins extending between neighboring cells to bind cells tightly o adhesion junctions have cytoskeletal elements joining internal plaques in neighboring cells o gap junctions form when two identical plasma membrane channels of neighboring cells join so that ions and small molecules pass between cells Connective Tissues - connective tissue binds structures together, provides support and protection, fills spaces, stores fat, and forms blood cells - connective tissue provides source cells for muscle and bone in animals that regenerate - connective tissue cells are separated widely by a noncellular matrix between cells
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Kevin Kelleher, MTC Biology 102 Study Notes Exam 4 2 - Loose Fibrous and Dense Fibrous Connective Tissues o fibroblasts are cells spaced apart and separated by a jelly matrix of white collagen fibers and yellow elastic fibers o collagen fibers provide flexibility and strength; elastic fibers provide elasticity o loose fibrous connective tissue supports epithelium and provides support, flexibility, and protective covering encasing many internal organs o dense fibrous connective tissue contains closely packed collagenous fibers; it is found in tendons, which attach muscles to bone, and ligaments, which bind bones
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102SN4 - Biology 102 Study Notes Exam 4 Chapter 33 Animal...

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