Chapter 1- Organization of Cells

Chapter 1- Organization of Cells - Chapter 1- Organization...

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Chapter 1- Organization of Cells - Cell: smaller unit of organism -> all life -Cellular Level : microchasm of life -Atoms and molecules make up organelles -Cell Theory: what’s theory to a scientist? -How does the cell theory relate to environmental life? -Is a virus cellular? Is it alive? No, it infects cells -Fact: verified information -Theory: explanation- >based on many facts-> overreaching explanation -Law: general principle - Cell Theory- basis -> very sure of 1) Cells are basic units of organism and functional living organisms 2) All cells come from pre-existing cells 3) All living cells have evolved form a common ancestor -Metabolism: Also cellular, total of chemical activity -Need both: -Anabolism: synthesis -Catabolism: breaking things downs ->Recycle ->Release energy to make available to inside -H20: both are essential - Hydrophobic: don’t interact with water
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-Hydrophilic: interact with water -Minerals: -Why are Ions important? -Biological Molecules: -Carbohydrates -Lipids -Protein (including enzymes) -Nucleic Acids ex: DNA, RNA -Life: -Builds itself -Renews itself -Expands itself -Selective separation from the environment ->Cell is open system, only selected things come in/out -Energy Transformations ->Cells have energy converting mechanisms -Information storage and retrieval systems -> DNA -Need enzymes to make DNA, RNA, Lipids, Carbs -Cell can make itself -DNA -> RNA -> Protein -Reproduction -Asexual/Sexual -Cells: (All cells have DNA) -Unity
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-Diversity: Not all cells are identical ->Evolution explains unity= consequence of common ->Evolution explains diversity ->following ancestor, evolution path - Evolution: -Energy Transformation -Information -Evolution is an explanation -It works together -The Plasma Membrane: -All cells enclosed -Membrane: refers to thin sheet ->multicellular ->Encloses cell, all have plasma membrane -Cell Wall: -Cellulose and other polysaccharides -form strong cells walls -In most bacteria, fungi, and plant cells - Surface Area (mm2)= h, w # of sides, # of cubes - Volume (mm2)= V=H, W, L # of cubes - Surface Area/Volume Ratio= Surface Area/Volume -As cell gets bigger -> less surface area to support volume (In textbook) -Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells): before nucleus, non-nucleus
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- Bacteria, small single cells, smaller than Eukaryotic cells, plasma membrane, can’t be large, hard to get rid of, 3.5 billion years ago, rule the world, carry chemical reactions - Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells): true nucleus -We are, special adaptations allow to be larger than prokaryotic cells, don’t know how long they’ve been around~ about 1.5 billion yrs ago, have many more specialized internal organelles, composed of membranes, formed same way as plasma -Membrane : -like soap bubbles, have ability to form bubbles like compartments, special spaces where chemical reactions take place in a cell, function as work services, like counter space ->not a lot of space **Measurements: -1 meter= 100 millimeters(mm) -1 millimeter= 1000 micrometers (um)
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 1- Organization of Cells - Chapter 1- Organization...

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