125_201+Chapter_1_Biomech

125_201+Chapter_1_Biomech - Introduction to Biomedical...

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- 1 - Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Section 2: Fundamentals of Biomechanical Engineering Rutgers University Noshir Langrana, Ph.D David Shreiber, Ph.D Morad Bouzit, Ph.D Rachel Bareither, MS Martin Yarmush, MD, Ph.D
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- 2 - CHAPTER 1: I NTRODUCTION TO B IOMECHANICS Derived from classical mechanics, the field of biomechanics is used to describe how biological systems respond to forces exerted upon them. The governing principles are applied across the dimensions, from cellular mechanics to whole-body movement analysis. As in classical mechanics, responses to perturbations in the biological realm can be divided into three branches; these are described in figure 1-1 as rigid body mechanics, deformable body mechanics, and fluid mechanics. Rigid and deformable bodies will be the main focus of the following chapters in analysis of different systems and how the two can be compared and related. 1.1 Rigid Body and Deformable Body Definitions When a force acts on a body, two things can happen: the body can move, translating and/or rotating through space, and it can also deform, changing its shape in response to the applied forces. Think about hitting a golf ball off of a tee. The golf club applies a force to the ball, and the ball flies through the air, translating and spinning. But if you have ever seen the impact of a club-on-ball with high speed video, you know that the golf ball also significantly changes shape (Figure 1-1). In mechanics, we can separate these two responses into separate analyses: rigid body and deformable body mechanics – and we can do the same thing in biomechanics . (Ref: http://www.golfdigest.com/equipment/index.ssf?/equipment/gd200407franktalk.html) Figure 1-1. Impact of a Golf Club on a Golf Ball Rigid Body Statics Dynamics -Kinematics -Kinetics Deformable Body Elasticity Plasticity Viscoelasticity Fluid Mechanics Liquids Gases Figure 1-1 : Description of Classical Mechanics
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- 3 - Figure 1.2 Deformation of the Intervertebral Disc during Compression of the Spine (Ref: www.backache.md/physreal- print.asp ) In rigid body mechanics, we assume that the bodies that are interacting mechanically cannot change shape. Newton’s Laws of motion, which we learned in Physics, are the underlying principles of rigid body mechanics, and largely deal with balancing forces and conserving energy and momentum. When a body is not accelerating, rigid body analysis reduces to balances of forces and moments, where the sum of the entities must equal zero. This is called a static analysis . When forces cause the bodies to move, we need to be able to predict their trajectories, both translational and rotational, and how these positions change with time – this is the field of kinematics – and we need to know how forces affect these movements – this is the field of dynamics. In
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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125_201+Chapter_1_Biomech - Introduction to Biomedical...

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