125_201+Chapter_4_Biomech - CHAPTER 4: HUMAN PERFORMANCE F...

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F z F x F T M Figure 4-1 CHAPTER 4: H UMAN P ERFORMANCE In the previous chapter, information on the joint load (F, M and T in Figure 4-1) was provided. Based on this information and including geometry and material properties of bone, we were able to calculate stresses at different locations along the femur allowing us to determine if the femoral bone fails. In this chapter, we will discuss how one can obtain the joint reactions while performing daily activities. We will investigate experimental measurements of human body movements, loads (vertical ground reaction - F z and lateral reactions - F x , seen in Figure 4-1), and analytical methodology to accurately estimate this information. We will further investigate the applicability of this information in clinical reality. Quantitative gait analysis is a methodology to analyze human motion (performance) in normal individuals, athletes, and patient populations. Based on this information, one can identify the underlying causes of gait or motion related abnormalities in individuals, athletes, or patients with a wide range of medical issues. These might include cerebral palsy, stroke, joint pain and/or pathology (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, wrist, cervical spine and lumbar spine), and other neuromuscular problems (e.g. Figure 4-2). The results of gait analysis have been shown to be useful in determining the best course of treatment in these patients. ( a ) ( b ) Figure 4-2. Body Markers for Kinematic analysis to be used for (a) Rehabilitation Application (b) exercise Evaluation Analysis
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Figure 4-3 shows an example of a torn ligament in the ankle of a star baseball player. The typical vertical and horizontal ground reactions experienced at the foot during a pitching action are also shown. This activity is dynamic and repetitive. This demonstrates the need to have non-invasive and non-intrusive methodology to quantitatively evaluate such performances. Another example demonstrating the need and applicability for gait analysis is further described. It is known that paraplegic patients experience shoulder pain due to routine wheelchair operations needed to perform daily activities. An experimental set up to collect quantitative information about wheelchair propulsion is shown in Figure 4-4. The motion of the upper arms are recorded and represented as stick diagrams to understand and evaluate the motion. Gait analysis (also known as motion analysis) systems in general offer state-of-the-art, high resolution, accurate motion capture systems to acquire, analyze and display three dimensional motion data on both healthy and pathologic patients while performing different tasks. The hardware system is integrated with a data acquisition system that enables the simultaneous acquisition of force/torque and electromyography data (records muscle activity). User friendly graphical interfaced analysis software is available that uses kinematics, kinetic and electromyography data which is displayed graphically or as an animation. The next step is to integrate the data into a composite
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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125_201+Chapter_4_Biomech - CHAPTER 4: HUMAN PERFORMANCE F...

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