8 EMERGING DISEASES -- trends in infectious disease

8 EMERGING DISEASES -- trends in infectious disease - What...

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What are emerging infectious diseases? (mosquitoes aren’t epidemiologists) Diseases with incidence rates that have increased in last few years or could increase in the near future
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20 familiar diseases--including TB, malaria, cholera-- have reemerged or spread geographically since 1973, often in more virulent and drug-resistant forms. 30 previously unknown disease agents identified since 1973: HIV, Ebola, hepatitis C, and Nipah virus & others, for which no cures are available.
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The Diseases are new but the pathogens are not! Newly described disease within past few decades Agricultural expansion (e.g., Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever), changing residence/settlement patterns Intrusion into/modification of environments leads to contact with zoonoses Known disease expands to new region Dengue fever (19 th cent. shipping, Ae. aegypti ), West Nile virus irrigation, modification of river flow, crowding, (Schistosomiasis) Climate change (malaria at higher elevations)
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The Diseases are new but the pathogens are not! Increased local incidence—or Migration, changes in environment, changes in virulence Amazon, rapid deforestation, farming/gold mining (malaria) Increased severity/duration, or Increased resistance Major problem with S taphylococcus aureus & Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis & Plasmodium falciparum
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How do we find them? improved surveillance (global) –close to real-time surveillance careful diagnosis better communication among HC workers (Global) new techniques for detection: PCR (polymerase chain reaction), more sensitive and specific bioassays
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BBC NEWS
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North Asian migratory birds (waterfowl) are reservoirs for influenza A viruses –no infection Shed in saliva, feces, secretions Domestic poultry & local bird species can be infected (~90-100% mortality) –more info: CDC bird flu H5N1 has mutated to become more virulent and infect multiple species how turkey farms work
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really new? TB is an old disease – Paul Farmer notes it has been here
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8 EMERGING DISEASES -- trends in infectious disease - What...

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