Midterm study guide .1

Midterm study guide - ANTH/INTS 319 MIDTERM EXAM 1 Discuss the 2 important diseases endemic in Africa sleeping sickness(trypanosomiasis and river

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ANTH/INTS 319 MIDTERM EXAM 1. Discuss the 2 important diseases endemic in Africa, sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) and river blindness (onchocerciasis). Describe the life cycles of the pathogens, vector and key reservoirs. Describe transmission, social factors and preventive measures. How do these two diseases differ in their human impact, and what are key issues in the social, cultural and ecological history of these two diseases? What impacts do they have on economic productivity in the region? Trypanosomiasis - Transmission: o Host is bitten by a tsetse o Trypanosomes multiply in the fly’s gut o ~4 days and then moves to the fly’s salivary gland o Changes for 15 days until it is in the metacyclic stage o Fly transmits the mature trypanosomes to a new host - Key reservoirs include humans, cattle, antelope, and also found in pigs and other mammals. - Vector: Tsetse; a blood sucking fly of genus Glossina o Only occupies the part of Africa south of the subsahara - Issues: o Ecological Infections of domestic animals has had the greatest impact- The Tsetses inhabit an area of 6 million square miles. Cattle therefore cannot graze there because they would die. Zebu, the breed of cattle that is favored by pastoralists, is very susceptible to Trypanosomiasis. There are other cattle that are smaller and less susceptible o Cultural Thought to have been brought by Sir Henry Morton Stanley. The vector existed but the disease did not in the area. Tsetse picked it up and started infecting people. They had to leave that area but the
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game was subsequently infected and acts as a reservoir host. Now there is a lot of potentially rich land that no one inhabits except for fisherman who are at a high risk. - Impact on humans o Bitten where it enters the blood stream. Leaves the blood stream and enters the lymphatic system. It then travels to the spinal fluid and the tissues of the CNS. This results in comatose without treatment and then death. - Ways to rid the area of Trypanosomes: o Large-scale deforestation (can’t thrive not in open chunks of land) o Game- destruction program (one was instilled in 1950 but the pathogen persisted) o Insecticides (caused more cattle to live and therefore the land was overgrazed) o NO vaccine (a new antigenic variant developed every 5-10 days)
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This document was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course ANTH 319 at UNC.

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Midterm study guide - ANTH/INTS 319 MIDTERM EXAM 1 Discuss the 2 important diseases endemic in Africa sleeping sickness(trypanosomiasis and river

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