Question 3 A
WID – Women in Defense
WAD – Women’s Alliance for Development
GAD – Gender and Development
The “Women, Culture, and Development (WCD)” approach maintains that production
and reproduction are inseparable in women’s lives.
Kum-Kum Bhavnani states that in many
cultures, a woman’s productivity is dependent upon the number of children she can bare.
Bhavnani’s article implies how cultural norms and ideals influence the theories of women and
consequently the views on how women should develop.
The WCD refuses to separate the
reproductive women from the productive women because to do so would mean making the lives
of men and women “seem more tidier” and ideal than they actually are.
Through this approach,
ethnicity, religion, age, sexuality, and livelihood provide a necessary examination of the social
processes of women that cannot be seen in any of the other approaches mentioned above.
taking into account the cultural aspect of a woman’s life, the WCD steers clear of the economy-
centered path of the WID, WAD, and GAD organizations.
Thus, in terms of everyday
experiences, practices, and ideologies, a more transient view of development can be seen that is
far greater than the common economic aspect of development.
In “Body Politics,” the author does not discuss the differences between men and women
in terms of physical structures or economic growth, but analyzes how cultural practices embody
men and women differently.
Harcourt mentions gender and how it has nothing to do with the
physical differences between a man and woman but instead gender refers to the psychosocial,
political-cultural, scientific and economic differences that define human relations.
on to explain how gender is not binary but rather multidimensional.
This article presents a very
informative aspect of women, culture, and development because it does not subject women to the
standard, stereotypical classification of women that was once defined by men.
Question 3 B
“The Object of Development,” by Timothy Mitchell is an analysis of developmental
strategies and basic guidelines in Egypt.
This discourse constructs objects of analysis and
stresses that even though there is sufficiently arable land, development cannot occur without a
digression from beef, pesticides and inequality. From the examples of population, food, and land,
Mitchell dismantles misconceptions based solely on correlative evidence and amends them to
communicate the complex internal problems such as those of social inequality and biased
Furthermore, he strongly maintains that political problems are the strongest hindrance
to social and gender inequalities and that as long as the problems remain political, they will not
He also says that because Egypt is faced with naturalized construction, Egyptians
should work to deconstruct and denaturalize the natural and ordinary.
Mitchell’s argument is
based around a discourse of rational planning which refuses to omit considerations of any aspect