final exam notes

final exam notes - World War I The Russian Revolution I WWI...

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The Papacy and the State of Christendom I. The Papal Monarchy – clergy were being taxed by French and English kings II. Conflict between royal monarchies and the papal monarchy A. Boniface VIII (1294-1303) vs. Philip IV, the Fair (r. 1285-1314) – Boniface prohibited giving any more money to Philip and damned him to hell; Philip had Boniface arrested à pope gets control of royal finances B. Anagni (1303) vs. Canossa (1377) – anagni is where boniface is held C. Avignon Papacy (1309-77) and the Spread of Papal Corruption – Clement V moves papacy from Rome to avignon D. Papal revenues – go to nobles III. The Great Schism (1378-1417) A. Two popes (1378), then three (1409) A.i. King of France vs King of Italy both pick a Pope A.ii. Conciliarists choose a third Pope B. Conciliarism – belief that gen. council of the College of Cardinals should rule and reform the Church à limited power of Pope C. Council of Constance (1414-18) and the election of Martin V (r. 1417-31) – Council meets to overthrow power of italy who was present in greatest # and elected Martin V is final Pope D. Council of Basel (1431-1449) and Execrabilis (1460) V. Challenges to Clerical Authority A. John Wycliffe (1320?-1384) – church too remote from people, doctrines simplified, less power of priests, more direct reliance on (translated version) Bible, Scriptures alone, Pope, Papacy etc. could not tell Christians what to believe, questioned Transubstantiation, Predestination, B. Lollards – followers of Wycliffe C. Jan Hus (1369-1415) – denied leadership of Church, and distinctions b/w clergy and Priests and laypeople D. Hussite Revolution, 1415-1436 Heresy, Magic, and witches – 10/10/07 The Witch Craze in Europe – middle age to old women, usually widows in the outskirts of the towns, blame for many problems dealing w/ crop failure and death, devil worship, carnal lusts, ate babies I. Definition of Witchcraft – harmful magic, injury someone or animals, misfortune, a. Harmful Magic a.i. Crime – powers of witch to perform magic come from devil b. Pact with the devil (heresy) b.i. Witch made compact w/ the devil giving the witch powers to perform magic and injure others b.ii. Heresy b.iii. Increasing prosecution of witches c. The Malleus Maleficarum – witches hammer c.i. Manual for hunting witches d. Trials
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d.i. Frequency 1300-1500 d.i.1. 1300 – 5 d.i.2. 1460-1480 = 35-40 d.ii. After 1500 – trial frequency is off the charts d.iii. Beginning of a very disturbing phenomenon d.iv. Large number of people accused and executed II. Early Witchcraft Trials a. Sorcery (1300-1435) a.i. Magician who is able to invoke the devil and use the devil to learn about the future a.ii. No injury to anyone else a.iii. Politics at court (royal or princely) – political functions a.iii.1. Way to bring down factions by linking to sorcery a.iii.2. Joan of Arch b. Growing importance of diabolism (1435-1500) b.i. Notion that devil is giving powers to the witch c. Malleus Maleficarum – Heinrich Kramer
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final exam notes - World War I The Russian Revolution I WWI...

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