Western european notes - before 1650

Western european notes - before 1650 - Did the Roman...

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Did the Roman Republic and Revolution 8/23/07 I. The unification of italy A. Geography – Apennine range B. Unification becomes harder due to mtns C. Hills can be pastured D. 625 B.C – build a forum aka marketplace E. Etuscan Origins – 625 – 509 BC - North of tiber river - Tech. advanced culture and traded w/ greeks and Phoenicians F. Greek Influences – south italy II. The early roman republic A. Growth of constitution B. Three major supports / checks and balances - consuls – Supreme civil and military elected by assembly of the centuries wealthier citizens voted first imperium – right to cntrl troops and execute any assignments tribes – membership depended on social status quaestores and aediles – treasury - Dictator – could not hold office for more than 6 months - Senate – elder states men, nerve center of the state, membership for life III. Struggle of the Orders A. Patricians – small number of land owning elite B. Plebians – serfs majority C. Membership in each class based on birth and cannot be changed - Plebeians wanted to make state a machine for conquest - Plebeians threatened to secede from state – gained right to elect tribunes to represent them - Tribues had veto power - Publication of the code of laws – 12 wooden tablets D. Licinian-Sextian Laws - Names of 2 tribunes - Created office of praetor – assistant consul chief officer for civil law - Restricted amt of land anyone could occupy E. End of the Struggle - Plebeians met in council of plebeians - Passed laws called plebiscites - Assembly of Tribes – meetings everyone could attend - Patricians did not attend mostly IV. Religion and Roman Values A. Forms of worship B. Father acted as priest and led family in worship C. Public religion connected w/ state D. Women were responsible for religious duties E. Vestal Virgins – 6 women needed to protect the sacred fire
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F. Maintain conservative old roman values - Proper devotion - Respect to citizens - Wish to take things seriously A. Expansion of rome - Peacful diplomacy - Treaty - War - Gauls – led to resilience - Roman Army – legion (6000 men) - Pyrrhus Invades Italy – pyrrhus finally leaves - Roman Federation – rome gave different degrees of citizenship to their conquests - Close to the center got full citizenship – pass on land, protection hold offices - Farther out got half citizenship – could not vote B. Mediterranean Conquest - Punic Wars – 3 wars w/ Carthage and Rome o 1 st war – 264 BC – romans assist messana against Carthage o Rome wins first war o 2 nd War – Carthage angry b/c rome interfered in its conquests In Spain Hannibal and Carthage vs Rome Used elephants Publius Cornelius Scipio [Africanus] – helped rome win 2 nd war in Africa o 3 rd War C. Wars w/ Macedonia and Syria D. Annexation of Greece – Rome finally took Greece under their control as a province E. Nature of Expansion – organization and force F. Senate chooses governors to look over small regions of conquered land G. Set troops at station to prevent rebellions H. Had tax collectors I.
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