Geology 101 Section 1 Notes

Geology 101 Section 1 Notes - Magnetic stripes have been...

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Magnetic stripes have been measured on the ocean floor parallel with ocean ridges. -This is caused by the flip in polarity of earth’s magnetic field. -The strips magnetize when the new crust cools. As it gets cooler they line up at whatever orientation the earth’s polarity is. -Strips have high and low intensities resulting from when the polarity was constant and when it was switching respectively. Atoms Protons (+) Neutrons (none) Electrons (-) Atomic Number -Number of Protons Atomic Mass -Number of protons +neutrons Isotopes -Elements with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons Ion -Any charged atom A) Positive Ions = Cations B) Negative Ions = Anions -complex anions: (CO 3 ) -2 (SO 4 )-2 (SiO 4 )-4 Most Common Elements 1. Iron (Fe) 35% 2. Oxygen 30% (in the crust) 3. Silicon (Si) 15% 4. Mg 13% 5. Ni 2.4% 6. S 1.9% 7. Ca 1.1% 8. Al 1.1% 9. Na .4% 10. K.05% -Approximately 99.95% of entire earth Most Common Elements in the crust 1. O – 46% 2. Si – 28% 3. Al – 8% 4. Fe – 6% 5. Mg – 4% 6. Ca – 2.4 % 7. K – 2.3% 8. Na – 2.1% -Approximately 98.8% of entire crust
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Minerals A solid, naturally occurring crystalline structure with a regular chemical structure Mineral Groups 1. Carbonates – (CO 3 ) -2 2. Sulfates – (SO 4 ) -2 3. Oxides – (O) -2 4. Native Elements 5. Silicates - (SiO 4 ) -4 Silicates -Form in tetrahedras 1. Independent Tetrahedral Silicates a. Stick together due to difference in charges with the addition of a cation. b. Mg 2 SiO 4 Fe 2 SiO 4 c. Olivine : (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 Mg and Fe substitute for one another in this formula 2. Twin Tetrahedral Structure a. 2 silicates – Cation – 2 Silicates b. Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 3. Ring Silicates a. Silicates form into a ring (see book for illustration)
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Geology 101 Section 1 Notes - Magnetic stripes have been...

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