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Geology review

Geology review - 1 2 3 4 Geocentric model the earth sits...

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1. Geocentric model: the earth sits motionless at the center of the universe 2. Heliocentric model: all planets, including earth orbit the sun. 3. Galaxies: groups of solar systems 4. Doppler effect a. Light moving away from you is red. b. Light moving toward you is blue. 5. Expanding Universe Theory: raisin in bread loaf comparison. 6. Big Bang: All matter in the universe was once packed into an infinitely small point which exploded for some reason. a. At first it was so small and hot and dense that it consisted entirely of energy (universe) 7. Nebulae: patchy clouds of gas 8. Accretion Disk: dense portion of nebulae pulls in surrounding mass because of its gravity. As the mass compacts the spin gets faster and faster. (ice skater). Forms a star. 9. Protostar: the central ball of the accretion disk becomes hot enough to glow 10. Supernova: the violent explosion of a dead star 11. Stellar wind: the stream of atoms emited from a star during its lifetime 12. Terrestrial planets: the inner planets. Mercury venus earth mars. Rock surrounding core of iron 13. Gas-giant planets: 14. Proto-planetary disk: an accretion disk of hydrogen helium and other gases as well as ice and dust. Contains the raw material from which planets form. 15. Planetesimals: bodies whose diameter exceed about 1km 16. Protoplanets: bodies almost the size of today’s planets 17. Differentiation: development of internal layering. Heat caused melting which allowed denser alloy’s to move to the center. 1. Dipole: has a north and south magnetic field. 2. Hydrosphere: surface water on earth 3. Cryosphere: ice covered regions on earth 4. Crust, Mantle, Core 5. Fault: a fracture on which sliding occurs 6. Geothermal Gradient: the rate of change in termperature with depth 7. Moho: the crust-mantle boundary 8. Upper mantle, lower mantle 9. Transition zone: where the character of the mantle undergoes a series of abrupt changes. 10. Lithosphere: the crust and uppermost part of the mantle 11. Asthenosphere: the bottom part of the mantle where rock can “flow”. 12. Oceanic crust is mafic, Continental crust is Felsic, Mantle is ultramafic rock 1. Subduction: the sinking of the oceanic plate back into the mantle 2. Paleomagnetism: When rocks preserve the magnetic orientation of earth from certain periods of time in the past. This allows us to determine the orientation that large bodies of crust had in the past.
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3. Apparent polar-wander path: continents move relative to each other while magnetic poles stay roughly fixed. 4. Bathymetry: The shape of the seafloor surface. 5. Abyssal plains: the broad relatively flat regions of the ocean at a depth of 4-5km 6. Seamounts: isolated submarine mountains 7. Fracture zones: narrow bands of vertical fractures that lie roughly at right angles. 8. Marine magnetic anomalies: distinctive alternative bands of strong and weak magnetism.
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Geology review - 1 2 3 4 Geocentric model the earth sits...

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