Geol 2 Outline

Geol 2 Outline - Hour exam #2 Study Guide 1. Minerals I:...

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Hour exam #2 Study Guide 1. Minerals I: Chemistry Review (Atoms to Minerals) a.i. Numerics a.i.1. Mass Number is the #protons + #neutrons a.i.2. Atomic Weight: #protons + avg. # neutrons a.ii. Atom Arrangement a.ii.1. Compound- elements in a specific ration a.ii.2. Molecule- smallest quantity of compound 2. Bonds a.i. Chemical Bonding a.i.1. Ionic a.i.1.a. Electrons are transferred between atoms forming attracting ions a.i.1.a.i. Moderately strong a.i.2. Covalent a.i.2.a. Electrons are shared a.i.2.b. Strong a.i.3. Metallic a.i.3.a. Drift atom to atom a.i.3.b. Good conductors a.i.3.c. Weaker a.i.4. Van der Waals a.i.4.a. Sheets of covalently bonded atoms held by weak electrostatic forces a.i.4.b. Weakest a.i.5. Anions a.i.5.a. Gain electron a.i.6. Cations a.i.6.a. Lose electrons 3. Minerals a.i. Minerals a.i.1. Naturally occurring a.i.2. Inorganic a.i.3. Solid a.i.4. Crystalline structure a.i.5. Definite chemical composition a.ii. Rock a.ii.1. solid mixture of minerals a.iii. Chemical Composition and Crystalline Structure a.iii.1. Determines physical properties of the mineral a.iii.2. Stronger bonds mean harder minerals a.iv. Polymorph a.iv.1. Minerals that have same chemical composition, but different crystal structures a.v. 8 Most Abundant Elements a.v.1. oxygen
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a.v.2. silicon a.v.3. aluminum a.v.4. iron a.v.5. calcium a.v.6. sodium a.v.7. potassium a.v.8. magnesium a.v.9. all cations, lose electrons a.vi. How minerals Form a.vi.1. Solidification of metal a.vi.2. Precipitate from a solution a.vi.3. Slid=state diffusion (metamorphism) a.vi.4. Biomineralization a.vi.5. Fumerolic mineralization a.vii. Physical Properties of Minerals a.vii.1. Luster a.vii.1.a. how surface reflects light a.vii.1.a.i. Metallic and non-metallic a.vii.2. Hardness a.vii.2.a. Easiness to scratch a.vii.3. Crystal shape a.vii.3.a. External expression of animals internal atomic structure, angle between crystal faces are constant a.vii.4. Cleavage a.vii.4.a. Tendency of mineral to break a.vii.4.b. # of planes, angles between adjacent planes a.vii.5. Fracture a.vii.5.a. Do not exhibit cleavage a.vii.5.b. Smooth, curved surface a.vii.6. Specific gravity a.vii.6.a. Weight of mineral divided by equal volume of water a.vii.6.b. Metallic have higher s.g. than nonmetals 4. Silicates a. (SiO4)4- b. Building Blocks b.i. Tetrahedron b.i.1. Independent b.i.2. Single chains b.i.3. Double chains b.i.4. Sheets b.i.5. 3-D framework b.ii. Examples b.ii.1. Single b.ii.1.a. Olivine
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b.ii.1.b. Garnet b.ii.2. Double b.ii.2.a. Pyroxene b.ii.2.b. Cleavage b.ii.2.c. Amphibole b.ii.3. Sheets b.ii.3.a. Mica- 1 direction of cleavage b.ii.3.b. Clay b.ii.4. 3-D b.ii.4.a. Feldspar b.ii.4.b. Quartz c. Non-silicates c.i. Major Iron Ores c.i.1. Hematite c.i.2. Magnetite c.i.3. Corundum c.ii. Barbonates c.ii.1. Calcite c.ii.2. Aragonite c.ii.3. Dolomite c.iii. Sulfides c.iii.1. Pyrile c.iii.2. Galena c.iii.3. Chalcopyrite c.iv. Sulfates c.iv.1. Gypsum c.v. Halides c.v.1. Halite NaCl c.vi. Native Element c.vi.1. Gold
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Geol 2 Outline - Hour exam #2 Study Guide 1. Minerals I:...

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