Geol outline 3

Geol outline 3 - Mineral Resources Metallic Mineral...

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Mineral Resources Metallic Mineral Resources Properties Opaque, shiny, smooth, conductive solids Metallic Bonds Due to crystal structure and bonding Ductile- drawn into thin wires Malleable- able to be pounded into thin sheets Types Native- naturally occurring, durable: copper, silver, gold Precious- rare- gold, silver, platinum Base- industrial- iron, lead, zinc, tin Ore- rock with concentration of metal-rich minerals Formation- via geologic processes magma activity, hydrothermal alteration, secondary enrichment, sedimentary processes, weathering, hydraulic sorting Magmatic Ores sulfide minerals crystallize early and sink in magma form massive sulfide ores at bottom of chamber sulfides include: pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, galena Hydrothermal
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Minerals deposited by hot, chemically active fluids common with plutonic intrusions crystallize in rock fractures as vein deposits black smokers- occur along MOR sea water in cracked hot crust is heated, picking up metals, metals crystalize with cold ocean cycle Secondary Enrichment Deposits groundwater leaches and oxidizes primary sulfides ores adding o2, OH, and CO2, some secondary ores are prized Residual Mineral Deposits via extreme (tropical) chemical weathering weathering strips almost everything out of soil residual lateritic soil in enriched with FE and Al oxides Placer Deposits- concentrated by flowing water in high velocity water low density minerals are suspended and washed away high density grains settle tin, iron, gold preserved in fossil stream settlements Non Metallic Minerals Lack Metals dimension stone- building stone
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crushed stone- material for roads, asphalt, concrete cement- mixture of heated limestone, quartz, and clay used in houses: calcite, clay, gypsum, quartz Environmental Impacts Air, surface water, groundwater, soils, biota, aesthetics Acid Mine Draining (AMD) sulfides with O2 become sulfuric acid water from soil piles is acidified creates toxicity spoils land tailings- waste acid leachates contaminate ground and surface water respirable dusts Energy Resources Oil and Gas Form from dead plankton and marine algae sink in quiet water, accumulates with mud, under anoxic conditions matter is preserved, lithification forms a black shale petroleum source rock at 2-4 km, black shale is heated, breaks down to waxy kerogen, kerogen-rich source rocks are oil shales OIL WINDOW is useable oil in natural gas bubble Formation
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map sedimentary rocks, looks for source rocks, reservoirs, and traps rock sequences compiled cross sections show geometry
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This document was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course GEOL 101 at UNC.

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Geol outline 3 - Mineral Resources Metallic Mineral...

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