Midterm Review

Midterm Review - PHL 159 — Fall 2011 W fluvier o Said Lamarck went blind t ough disuse of his eyes insulted Lamarckism o Said God created many

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Unformatted text preview: PHL 159 — Fall 2011 W fluvier o Said Lamarck went blind t ough disuse of his eyes insulted Lamarckism o Said God created many he kinds of life after each of several Noachian—type mass extinctions D’orbigny_(1850) o Prodrome de Paleontologi 0 Establishment of many ge logic stages Lamarck(1744-1829) 0 Life is continuously create from inert mater by a vital force like the “vis plastica” of Aristotle 0 Life then evolved within k nds in a linear, non-branching way toward adaptive fitness and complexity o Inheritance of acquired ch racteristics 0 Lower organisms evolved ough physiological response to environmental change William Smith(1815) o “The map that changed th world” 0 ‘Geologic map of gland, Scotland and Wales. o Fossils can be used to corr late rock layers 0 The pages in the stratigrap ic record of life are now numbered Buffon 0 First nearly complete theo of evolution (1778) 0 Life arose in the poles fro oily waters 0 Organisms of the same ki d share a common ancestor 0 Evolution reflects enviro ental factors and inheritance o Extinction of species faili g to adapt to recently cooling earth Linnaeus Binomial Nomenc ature Q1211 Wrote the Principles 0 Geology m 0 Natural Selection is the m jor mechanism of evolution 0 Populations produ c more offspring than can survive o Survivors with ad ptive variations shape the new generation 0 Natural biological ariation is present 0 Common descent: all life hares a common ancestor o Lamarckism is not rfuted Wallace 0 Co-discovered natural sel ction 0 Extreme Darwinist o Believed all evolu ion must be through natural selection 0 Used this position to argue for divine human creation Huxley Aristotle ‘ o Divinely endowed interna driving forces cause life to ascend a natural ladder of increasing perfection o Ooze (vis plastica) can evolve progressively into a Olympic god 0 Vitalistic theory without common descent of all life. D’Vinci 0 complete and correct view on fossil origins, including burial on sea floor, mountain building, and erosion Gould . Emphasized the process of heterochrgny, which encompasses two distinct processes: pedgmgmhosis and terminal additions Time Prig s Archean Precambrian Proterozoic 544 . . . Cambrian —— Paleozmc = Anc1entAn1mals . 290 Permian Permo-Triassic Extinction (1) 243 Triassic Phanerozoic = Visible animals Mesozoic = Middle Animals Extinction 2 206 Jurassic 144 Cretaceous K-T Extinction (1) Triassic Life in NC Therapsid (premammals): Dicynodont: P1acer_ia§, cmodont, cynoggathus Dinosaurs: coelgpysis, plateosaurus Ancestor of Apatosaurus/Brontosaurus Save water by concentrating urine (similar to birds) Ralisuchian: postosuchus 10/6 11 2:02 PM Evolution is an historical fact - Fully testable by the geo ogic record and modern genetics. - Never contradicted by a y testable physical or historical evidence. The process of evolution is a heory: - Hierarchical in nature; d tails still G. Evelyn Hutchinson o All life in our univers Conditions for origin of life 0 Free (liquid) water t provide o Temperatures below 130 C so 0 Lack of free oxygen being refined. is probably carbon-based a medium for chemical reactions proteins are not destroyed by heat 0 Source of energy (in ernal or solar) Ancient Evidence 0 Chemical evidence 3 85 Ba 0 Fossil Evidence 3.55 a o Stromatolites - Found in ustralia - Formed y bacteria and cyanobacteria - Disappea ed with arrival of algal grazing mollusks o 3.3 to 1.8 Ba, atmos here changes from anaerobic to aerobic as evidenced by bande Eukaryotic Kingdoms iron formations o Protoctista Dinoflage lates and coccolithophores o Fungi o Plantae o Animalia 10/6/11 2:02 PM Common Skeletal Compositions - Calcite (calcium carbonate) — geologically stable. — resists dissolution by ground water. ~Aragonite (another form of calcium carbonate): —geologically unstable. — readily dissolved by acidic ground water. - Calcium phosphate (apatite, francolite, etc.) —geologically very stable and durable Evolution o Organic evolution is a series or partial or complete and irreversible transformations of the genetic composition of populations, based principally on altered interactions with the environment Kinds of Natural Selection o Directional evolutionary change in one direction without cladogenesis (branching of the lineage) o Disruptive: results in cladogenesis, i.e., one ancestral species gives rise to two descendant species o Stabilizing: natural selection weeds out the mutations, maintaining the ancestral characteristics, and resulting in “living fossils" o Latimeria (lobe fin fish) o Lingula (tongue brachiopod) o Metasequoia (conifer first described as a fossil, later found alive in Asia) 0 Evolutionary fitness 0 One’s proportional contribution of genes to the next generation. 0 Not necessarily strength, intelligence, predation ability, predation resistance 0 r-selection - for high intrinsic reproductive rate (r). E.g., rats, fleas, marine mussels. - physically accommodated; adaptable during catastrophic environmental change; tend to survive mass extinctions o K-selection - For a stable population density at or near the carrying capacity of the environment (K). E.g., some tropical reef corals, elephants. - Biologically accommodated, do not adapt as well during catastrophic environmental change due to dependence on other species for their survival o s-selection: for urvival in continuously extremely stressed environments. E g., desert cactus. o The Epigenetic System 0 The interactive st ucture of the gene system, can limit or enhance evolutio ary rates and evolutionary potential. 0 Some mutations ay enhance or negate the expression of other genes, whether ructural, operator, or regulatory. 0 May be stabilizin or destabilizing in its effect on evolution. Invertebrate Life 0 Life exploded in the Ca brian era a Phylum Chordata (spin l chord) o Notochord flexibl rod, similar to a spine - Apomorphy diagnostic feature of a plate - Synapomor hy o Eumetazoan phyla o Near-basal - Base of the volutionary tree (excluding sponges) o Annelid superphy um - The phyla h ve features in common that suggest (proven by DNA st 1dies) that they have common ancestors - Lots of seg ents and repeated organ systems - Arthropoda jointed foot 0 Lophophorate superphylum - Bryozoa moss animals - Brachiopoda dominant seashells for a long period of time o Echinoderm our superphylum o Porifera Phylum o Porifera Sponges - Simple multi-cellular organisms with almost no tissue and no organs - Plesiomorphic Close to the base of the evolutionary tree; primitive feature - Lousy fossil record - Skeleton made of spicules o CaCO3 = Calcite (very permenant) o CiOz = Opaline silica (do not stay around very long) - Permian-reefs in Texas - Suspension feeding o Cnidaria Phylum o Corals and Jellyfish o 3 Major Groups - Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Anthrozoa o Hydrozoa - Polymorphism individuals in a colony have different shapes and functions 0 Act as a unit, but with specific functions 0 Millepora Fire Coral - Physalia (Portuguese Man of War) 0 Colonial organism o Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) - Poorly represented in the fossil record 0 Anthozoa corals, sea fan, sea whips, sea pens - Spicules are made of calcite o Arthropoda Phylum 0 Armor suits, Jointed exoskeletons - Dinocarida Terror Crabs 0 First predator - Trilobites, chelicerates, crustacea o Trilio nothing around their mouths, used base of walking legs to crush and grab food 0 Most common fossils in the Cambrian o Cheli More advanced mouth, no jaw, claws (horseshoe crab, eurypterids, scorpians) o Crust Most advanced mouth, jaw - Uniramia o Millipe es, centipedes, insects o Unira us jaw o aws that evolved from the tip of the legs, not the base of the legs like with the TCC o Began as land dwelling animals Transitional Fossils 0 Early Amniota o Sauropsids - Reptiles o Synapsids - Mammals - Distinctive ingle temporal fenestra o Fenes ra = window in the eye 0 Class Reptilia o Anapsids - Turtles - No post-orb ta| fenestra o Diapsids - Lizards and snakes - Two post-o ital fenestrae o Therapsids - Cynodonts Permian-Jurassic) o Domi ant Early to Middle Triassic predators o Trans tional reptile-like mammals Artic Iar to quIdrate as in reptiles Dent ry to squamosal as in mammals Seco dary paI te closes off nasal cavity. Whis ers indicated by muscle attachment pits on side of m uth. Rib c ge reduoed around waist. Diffe 1 ntiated tooth eruption. “Mar upial" bones. Stap 5 smaller (better hearing) 0 Origin of Whales o Mesonychids (Paleocene-Eocene) 0 Bone crushing teeth in back of long jaw o Plantigrade feet (not digitigrade) o Tympanic bulla fully ossified (bony) o More Advanced Eocene archaeocete whales - Vertebrae become more simple Triassic Period 0 First Appearances (Lepidosauromorphs) o Plesiosaurs - Loch ness monster - Pliosaurus Largest predatory animal to ever evolve o Ichthyosaurs - Mesozoic “porpoises” - Dorsal fins evolved secondarily - Does not have the bulbous part that collects sound waves - Gave live birth 0 Lepidosaurs - Evolved into lizards and snakes in the late Jurassic - Are not in the line of descent from dinosaurs - Atavism something that is brought back to life 0 Archosauromorph diapsids: synaomorphics o Specializations allow for efficient breathing while running. - Bipedal, parasagittal gait o Bipedalism is temporary Facultative bipedality o Parasagittal almost along the midline of your body - Stiffened torso - Muscular diaphragm o Swallow gravel to help digestion. o Nest making with vegetation 0 Advanced mesotarsal - Pterosaurs, dinosaurs, birds 0 RauisuciaPostosuchus o Tried to be dinosaurs before dinosaurs were dinosaurs o Primitive body, advanced skull ...
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This document was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course GEOL 159 at UNC.

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Midterm Review - PHL 159 — Fall 2011 W fluvier o Said Lamarck went blind t ough disuse of his eyes insulted Lamarckism o Said God created many

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