final_studyguide

final_studyguide - Chapter 9 The Hydrosphere a. Water its...

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Chapter 9 – The Hydrosphere a. Water – it’s everywhere, in all 3 forms b. Water inventory – Mostly stored in oceans, but also exists in surface freshwater, groundwater, the atmosphere, and frozen in ice and snow c. Hydrologic cycle – continuous movement of water supply from one storage area to the next storage area a. Transfer processes – i. From surface to air, and air to surface ii. Involve change in location and, sometimes, in state of water 1. Example: Evaporation: transfer from ocean to atmosphere, from liquid to gas 2. Example: Infiltration: transfer from surface of continent into an aquifer d. Ocean - main source of evaporation and atmospheric moisture a. Density – affected by salinity and temperature b. Salinity – affected by fresh water entering a specific ocean region (river water or precipitation) and by evaporation i. Example: Ocean close to the Amazon river delta versus the Dead Sea c. Temperature variations e. Ocean water energy transfer a. Tides caused by moon’s and Sun's gravitational force i. Two cycles (high and low) ii. Tidal range b. Waves – movement of form, not mass
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c. Currents: the most noticeable transfer of energy in the oceans occurs through surface and deep water currents which relate the temperature, density and depth of the ocean i. Surface ocean currents: 1. horizontal movement, largely caused by wind, but also variations in temperature and salinity, and ocean topography ii. Deep water currents: 1. vertical and deep horizontal movement caused by relationship with surface currents and changes in temperature, salinity and density of ocean water f. Permanent Ice – Largest source of fresh water, but “locked away” a. Ice sheets and glaciers/ice caps on land b. Sea ice in the ocean c. Contain most fresh water on earth g. Water on land a. Mostly fresh b. 0.25% of all water on Earth c. Rivers and streams d. Lakes: natural and artificial e. Wetlands h. Groundwater – 2.5 times more than surface water, a. Comes from the surface and infiltrates through porous and permeable rock b. For infiltration to occur the rock or soil needs have both i. Porosity ii. Permeability c. The groundwater system : infiltration, Aquifer, Aquiclude, water table, zone of saturation, zone of aeration, confined aquifer, waterless zone, cone of depression
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d. Groundwater mining i. fossil water Chapter 13 – Intro to Landforms 1. Layers of the Earth a. Crust : floats on the asthenosphere i. Difference between Continental and oceanic b. Mantle – has most of the earth’s volume and mass c. Inner and outer cores – densest of layers due to intense pressure
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final_studyguide - Chapter 9 The Hydrosphere a. Water its...

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