review2 - Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure and Wind 1)...

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Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure and Wind 1) Atmospheric pressure a. Motion and collision of gas molecules b. Density c. Temperature – direct relationship d. Isobars – lines of equal pressure e. Wind – set in motion by pressure gradient, deflected by Coriolist effect, slowed and deflected slightly by surface friction i. In the upper vs. lower atmosphere – what’s the difference? ii. Wind speed and isobars 2) Cyclone a. Low pressure center b. Converging air at surface c. Ascending air 3) Anticyclone a. High pressure center b. Diverging air at surface c. Descending air 4) Horizontal wind flow direction of cyclones and anticyclones a. Northern and Southern Hemisphere 5) General circulation of the atmosphere a. Insolation drives it by generating temperature gradients → pressure gradients b. Hadley cells – converging and rising at equator c. STH – descending limb of Hadley Cell d. Trade winds – between 0 and 30 degrees e. ITCZ – convergent part of Hadley Cell f. Westerlies – between 30 and 60 degrees 6) Localized Wind system a. Sea breeze- land heats more during the day and creates low pressure, drawing air from the ocean → rises, cools and condenses to create clouds b. Land breeze – at night, opposite process Chapter 6 – Moisture 1) Water a. States of water (in the atmosphere) – liquid, solid (ice crystals), and gas (water vapor), constantly changing state b. Properties of water – surface tension, capillarity, universal solvent, high specific heat/heat capacity c. Changes in state – large amounts of energy released or absorbed i. Evaporation – cools surrounding, absorbs energy (latent heat)
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ii. Condensation – air must be saturated by adding moisture or lowering temperature to the dew point; must have condensation nuclei; energy released iii. Evapotranspiration – water evaporates directly from vegetation 2) Water vapor: most important state of water for atmosphere a. Invisible b. Moisture in the atmosphere c. Humidity: moisture in the air i. Depends on temperature ii. Humidity and temperature: exponential relationship d. Measuring water vapor i. Humidity ii. Absolute humidity – mass of water vapor in a given mass of air iii. Relative humidity: inverse relationship with temperature
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review2 - Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure and Wind 1)...

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