101_review1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth A Earths...

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to Earth A. Earth’s Shape B. Geographic grid system a. Parallels and latitudes – significance of the equator b. Meridians and longitudes – significance of the Prime Meridian C. Earth Movements a. Rotation on axis b. Revolution around the sun D. Earth’s axial tilt and the seasons a. Plane of the ecliptic b. Equatorial plane c. Inclination of earth’s axis i. Seasons ii. Solstices iii. Equinoxes E. Time a. World time zones b. Daylight Savings Time Chapter 2 – Portraying Earth A. Maps – Basic components: a. Scale i. large-scale vs. small-scale ii. Relates map distance to earth distance b. Projection – difficulties of projecting a sphere onto a 2-dimensional surface
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c. Legend and Title B. Isolines – spatial representation of the distribution of a variable such as temperature (iso means “equal”) C. Data gathering a. Field sampling b. Remote Sensing – any method of detection not in contact with the object of interest i. Electromagnetic spectrum – basic operating principle of remote sensing; much of the spectrum is used ii. Wavelength – length of the radiation waves determines their frequency and physical properties iii. Aerial photo 1. Vertical 2. Oblique 3. Orthophoto map – (geometrically) corrected for distortion iv. Satellite images D. Computer processing – often includes various types of corrections and value-adding to raw data a. GIS – Geographic Information Systems – applies remotely-sensed data to a more useful
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This document was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course 450 101 at Rutgers.

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101_review1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth A Earths...

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