Exam 2 Study Guide - Italc=lecture notes Exam 2 Study Guide...

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Exam 2 Study Guide Italc=lecture notes Regular-Textbook Notes Muscle Part II: 1. What is the difference between a muscle twitch, incomplete tetanus and complete tetanus? How is each achieved? A twitch is a single stimulus-contraction-relaxation sequence in a muscle fiber. A Twitch is a quick, short lived contraction-cannot create tension, power, pull. An incomplete dominance is a muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation. A complete tetanus occurs when the rate of stimulation is increased until the relaxation phase is completely eliminated, producing maximum tension. 2. What is a motor unit? What is recruitment? A motor unit is all the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron. Motor nerve-many motor neurons, each motor neurons controls several muscle cells. Recruitment is the activation of more and more motor units. 3. What is an isometric contraction? An isotonic contraction? Isometric Contraction: The muscle as a whole does not change length and the tension produced never exceeds the resistance. Example: pushing against a closed door and trying to pick up a car Does not shorten, anti-gravity Isotonic Contraction: Tension rises and the skeletal muscle’s length changes. Tension in the muscle remains at a constant level until relaxation occurs. Example: lifting an object off a desk, walking and running. Muscle shortens 4. Explain why muscles are typically arranged in antagonistic pairs. Antagonists are muscles whose actions oppose the movement produced by another muscle. An antagonist may also be a prime mover. For instance: tripceps brachii muscle is a prime mover that extends the elbow. It is therefore an antagonist of the biceps brachii and the biceps brachii is an antagonist of the triceps brachii. 5. What is creatine phosphate, and how does it affect muscle activity? Creatine phosphate is a high-energy compound present in muscle cells; during muscular activity, the phosphate group is donated to ADP, regenerating ATP. It power muscles. Creatine phosphate is used when muscles are at resting or low intensity. Creatine phosphate -> creatine by the process of creatine phosphokinase 6. What happens in a working muscle under a) aerobic and b) anaerobic conditions? Aerobic is without oxygen. O2 and Fatty Acids goes to Mitochondria which produces a lot of ATP Aerobic is with oxygen. Glycolysis- a bit of ATP.
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Glycogen breaks down into glucose however when this process is happening or for this process to happen priuvate (pyruvic acid) which leads to lactate/(lactate acid builds up in the sarcoplasmic reticulum=fatigue 7. Explain muscle fatigue, and how muscles recover from fatigue. Muscle fatigue is caused by the exhaustion of energy reserves or the buildup of lactic
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 118 taught by Professor Tolgabilgen during the Spring '09 term at University of Washington.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - Italc=lecture notes Exam 2 Study Guide...

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