L16 ch 41 - Lecture 16: Chapter 41 Lecture Guide Nutrition...

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Lecture 16: Chapter 41 Lecture Guide 1. Alimentary Canals Range from gastrovascular cavities to complete digestive tracts Simple cavity in Hydra Complete digestive tracts—most animals 2. Adaptations for Feeding Carnivores Herbivores Omnivores Frugivores: eat fruit Insectivores: eat insects Coprophagia-rabbits and rodents-produce pellets and re-ingests Beneficial bacteria in the human digestive tract: Escherichia coli , Acidophilus spp. , and other bacteria. produce methane (CH 4 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and other gases as they ferment their food. secrete beneficial chemicals such as vitamin K, biotin (a B vitamin), and some amino acids, and are our main source of some of these nutrients. Ruminants: constantly chewing and eating 1-Rumen: fermentation; large part of the stomach; break down material 2-Reticulum: 2 nd chamber; cud-plant material and water 3-Omasum: extract as much water as possible 4-Abomasum: digestive enzymes; secretion 3. More Adaptations for Feeding: Teeth -carnivores - molars-grinding, mostly premolars-tearing flesh, canines & incisors-biting flesh -herbivores-mostly molars; gap -omnivores-has everything -muscles of martication -masseter: lateral movement of mandible; elevates the mandible (closes); very large in herbivores -medial pterygoids: lateral movement of mandible; helps to elevate the mandible 1
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Lecture 16: Chapter 41 Lecture Guide -lateral pterygoids: lateral movement of mandible; opens the jaw -temporalis-close the mandible; very large in carnivores 4. Meeting Basic Needs Carbohydrates: are major fuel molecules and provide the raw “carbon skeletons” that are used in the synthesis of important molecules o monosaccharide (one sugar), e.g., glucose. o polysaccharide (“many sugars”), e.g., starch, glycogen, cellulose Proteins: mostly used for structure or specific functions such as enzymatic reactions and regulation Lipids: can provide up to 80% of total caloric requirements, mainly used for
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L16 ch 41 - Lecture 16: Chapter 41 Lecture Guide Nutrition...

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