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L16 ch 41 - Lecture 16 Chapter 41 Lecture Guide Nutrition...

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Lecture 16: Chapter 41 Lecture Guide Nutrition & Digestion 1. Alimentary Canals Range from gastrovascular cavities to complete digestive tracts Simple cavity in Hydra Complete digestive tracts—most animals 2. Adaptations for Feeding Carnivores Herbivores Omnivores Frugivores: eat fruit Insectivores: eat insects Coprophagia-rabbits and rodents-produce pellets and re-ingests Beneficial bacteria in the human digestive tract: Escherichia coli , Acidophilus spp. , and other bacteria. produce methane (CH 4 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and other gases as they ferment their food. secrete beneficial chemicals such as vitamin K, biotin (a B vitamin), and some amino acids, and are our main source of some of these nutrients. Ruminants: constantly chewing and eating 1-Rumen: fermentation; large part of the stomach; break down material 2-Reticulum: 2 nd chamber; cud-plant material and water 3-Omasum: extract as much water as possible 4-Abomasum: digestive enzymes; secretion 3. More Adaptations for Feeding: Teeth -carnivores - molars-grinding, mostly premolars-tearing flesh, canines & incisors-biting flesh -herbivores-mostly molars; gap -omnivores-has everything -muscles of martication -masseter: lateral movement of mandible; elevates the mandible (closes); very large in herbivores -medial pterygoids: lateral movement of mandible; helps to elevate the mandible 1
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Lecture 16: Chapter 41 Lecture Guide -lateral pterygoids: lateral movement of mandible; opens the jaw -temporalis-close the mandible; very large in carnivores 4. Meeting Basic Needs Carbohydrates: are major fuel molecules and provide the raw “carbon skeletons” that are used in the synthesis of important molecules o monosaccharide (one sugar), e.g., glucose. o polysaccharide (“many sugars”), e.g., starch, glycogen, cellulose Proteins: mostly used for structure or specific functions such as enzymatic reactions and regulation Lipids: can provide up to 80% of total caloric requirements, mainly used for
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