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L4 Metabolism & Enzymes

L4 Metabolism & Enzymes - Chapters 6 7 Lecture...

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Chapters 6 & 7 Lecture Outline Metabolism & Enzymes Chemical Reactions With respect to energy, chemical reactions can be: Exergonic: “energy outward” or releases free energy to its surroundings; spontaneous Endergonic: “energy inward” or absorbs free energy from its surroundings; not spontaneous Free energy is G : energy available to do work in a system like a cell Reactions in a closed system eventually reach equilibrium and can do no work. Metabolic disequilibrium is one of the defining features of life. Metabolic Pathways The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions is called metabolism. Metabolism occurs as a result of interactions between molecules in cells. Metabolic pathways begin with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps to form a specific product. Catabolic: from complex to simple – releases energy (exergonic) Anabolic: from simple to complex – requires energy (endergonic) A specific enzyme catalyzes each step of the pathway. Organization of Metabolic Pathways The product of one enzyme-controlled reaction serves as the substrate for the next reaction. Picture an assembly line with each enzyme carrying out a step.
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