L13 Mendelian genetics

L13 Mendelian - Chapter 16 Lecture Guide Mendelian Genetics I History of Genetics a Gregor Mendel an Austrian Monk worked out the rules of

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Chapter 16 Lecture Guide Mendelian Genetics I. History of Genetics a. Gregor Mendel, an Austrian Monk, worked out the rules of inheritance in a series of experiments on garden pea plants in 1865. b. His “theory of inheritance” was developed before chromosomes were fully understood. c. During the final decades of the 19 th century, biologists described the details of meiosis. d. In 1903, Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri linked the theory of inheritance to chromosome behavior to produce the “chromosome theory of inheritance.” i. This theory asserts: 1. that meiosis causes the patterns of inheritance that Mendel observed 2. that hereditary factors called genes are located on chromosomes II. Basic Genetics Terminology Heredity-inheritance or the transmission of traits from parents to offspring Trait-any characteristic of an individual ranging from overall height to the primary structure of a particular membrane protein Gene-the hereditary determinant for a trait Gene locus-location of a gene on a given chromosome Allele-different versions of the same gene Genotype-the alleles found in a particular individual Phenotype-physical expression of the genotype; (literally means “show type”) Dominant: use uppercase letter, for example, ( R )-the allele that dominates or is expressed Recessive: use lowercase letter, for example, ( r )-the allele that recedes or becomes hidden Homozygous-two copies of the same allele for a gene Heterozygous-one copy of each allele for a gene III. What Mendel Wanted to Know Is this true? Blending inheritance : traits observed in a mother and father blend together to form the traits observed in the offspring. Inheritance of acquired characteristics : traits present in parents are modified, through use, and passed on to their offspring in the modified form. IV. Mendel’s Experiments True Breeding : pure bred Hybridization : the mating or crossing of two true breeding varieties. P generation : the true breeding parents F 1 generation : hybrid offspring. “F” for filial for the Latin word for “son.” 1
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Lecture Guide F 2 generation : when hybrids are allowed to self-pollinate. V. Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance Law of Segregation: the two alleles for each gene must segregate—or separate— into different gamete cells during the formation of egg and sperm in the parents. (relates to homologous chromosomes) Law of Segregation: Law of Independent Assortment: alleles of different genes (non-homologous chromosomes) are transmitted independently of one another. Applies to genes (allele pairs) located on different chromosomes. Genes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together. 2
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course BIO 183 taught by Professor Parks during the Spring '07 term at N.C. State.

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L13 Mendelian - Chapter 16 Lecture Guide Mendelian Genetics I History of Genetics a Gregor Mendel an Austrian Monk worked out the rules of

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