Chapter Notes 1-6 - Chapter 1 1. History of...

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Chapter 1 1. History of microbiology—people, not exact dates. 2. Characteristics of all members of Domain Bacteria, Archaea, Eucarya. Lecture—80%; Book—20% Origins of microbiology Lucretius (98-55 BCE)- disease caused by invisible living creatures -Origin of “invisible creatures” -spontaneous generation (Aristotle 384-322 BCE) -organisms arise de novo (from new, from scratch) from nonliving Robert Hooke -published first drawing of microorganism in Microrgraphia -gave description how to make microscopes Antonie van Levunhook (1632-1723) -father of microbiology -drew and described bacteria and protozoa -called them wee animalcules - reported to royal Society of London Development of microbiology Slow development -no concept of importance -microscopes crude and few Microbiology developed in the 19 th century -better microscopes -improved staining techniques Microbiology applicable to two questions -spontaneous generation -nature of contagious disease Spontaneous Generation Redi’s experiments Can living organisms develop from nonliving material? - Aristotle (384-322 BCE) invertebrates could; no - Van Helmont: mice from wheat; no - Francisco Redi (1688) maggots do not arise spontaneously Did it occur from microorganisms? - Louis jo Blot: no, hay infusions - John Needham: yes, “vital force” from infusions - Comte de Buffron: yes - Schroder van Dusch: no, filtered air - Schultze Schwann -Lazzaro Spallazani (1765) no, air may carry germs - Described bacterial fission -Anton Lavosier: air contains oxygen, not enough oxygen in closed flask to support microbes - (discovered that there is oxygen in the air) - Louis Pasteur: final refutation of spontaneous generation
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Percentage of oxygen in the air 20.81% Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) -refuted spontaneous generation (1861) -used an infusion -initially used cotton plug, then swan-necked flask (florenue flask) -bacteria divide by binary fission -spontaneous generation does not occur Sterilizations -killing of all organisms on/in an object -critical for development of microbiology -canning, preservations of food -cotton stoppers used in microbiology Robert Koch (1874) -found in spore like bodies in bacillus anthracis (endospores) John Tyndall (1876) -heat resistant forms present -dust does carry microbes Ferdinand Cohn (1876) -named heat resistant forms of bacteria “endosperms” The Nature of Contagious disease Galen (150 AD) -imbalance between four hormones caused disease -blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile Girolamo Fracastro (1546) -invisible organisms (germs) caused diseases Agostino Bassi de Lodi (1835) -silkworm disease caused by fungus M.J. Berkeley (1845) -potato blight in Ireland (1845) caused by fungus Henrich de Bary (1853 -Smuts and rots caused cereal crop diseases Louis Pasteur (1857) -discovered that pebrive disease of silkworms due to microsporan nosema bombysis -revised “germ theory” of disease -discovered isomers and developed rabies -father of modern micrbiology
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2011 for the course BIOL 2421 taught by Professor Buck during the Spring '11 term at Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi.

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Chapter Notes 1-6 - Chapter 1 1. History of...

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