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drama notes up to 19th_20th century

drama notes up to 19th_20th century - Four essential...

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Four essential parallels between theatre and life. Actors=humanity. Simulation=reality. Rehearsal=spontaneity. Audiences=society. Aristotle wrote that drama is the imitation of an action or mimesis. Tragedy- serious drama in which a protagonist is of noble birth and suffers a series of catastrophes Comedy- entertainment and amusement with a happy ending. Tragicomedy- combines elements of tragedy and comedy Rising of the Moon- Lady Gregory. Type is poetic realism early 20 th century written in 1907. Themes: revolution, unity of the irish people, rebellion, law and order. GREEK THEATER Abydos: Osiris and Isis, where Osiris is buried and made a God. Dionysus- Greek God of Agriculture and wine, symbol of life giving power, killed and cut up like Osiris and Dionysus is brought back to life. Four Dionysian celebrations were held each winter in Athens: (1) the rural Dionysia or small Dionysia was at the end of December. (2) The Lenea in January. (3) The Anthesteria in February. (4)the Great Dionysia or City of Dionysia in March > 5-7 festival, dithyrambic contests, satyr play, 46 BCE first comedy and prizes were awarded. The chorus was called the goat singers, and the ritualistic chant was called the goat-song or tragos. Thespis: he won the first competition, and is credited with being the first tragedy writer, and he changed the form of the drama by stepping out the chorus and taking a solo part. He therefore became the first actor. This the name thespian for actor. The greek stage: orchestra, skene (the scene building), proskenion (raised stage added in late times in front of the skene where the actors performed). Koilon: the main theatre or auditorium. Paradoi or Parados: the passageways to enter the theater. It is also known as the entrance song by the chorus. If entering for the right parados, that meant that he was coming from the city or port. If he was coming from the left parados, he was coming from the field or abroad. Machina: a crane-like hoist that permitted actors to appear above the stage as if flying. Dues ex machina (god from the machine). This term is still used today to indicate an artificial plot device an author introduces late in a play to resolve difficulties. Aeschylus: added second actor intensifying the conflict or agon Sophocles: added 3 rd actor Euripides: noteworthy for his portrayal of women. Tragedy- human at the mercy of moira or fate. Tragic figure experience 3 stages of development: purpose, passion, perception. Satyr play: dressed as half men half beast. Erotic comedy. Cyclops by Euripides only surviving satyr play. Greek Comedy: o Old Comedy: Aristophanes: Lysistrata where individuals attacked personally coarse, raunchy humor, phallus costume piece, farse o New Comedy: Meander: The Grouch where they are more focused on the short comings of the middle class, social manners.
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ROMAN THEATER Hellenistic age: 336-146 BCE, the stage is higher, wider, and deeper. They copied
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