Unformatted text preview: “Galileo”
By Bertolt Brecht Germany in 1 half of 20 Cent.
Germany in 1
st European Imperialist power (turn of Century) Kaiser Wilhelm II regional & colonial ambitions World War I: 19141918 th Conflict w/ European powers, deepened & spread Treaty of Versailles establishes Weimar Republic Humiliating terms sowed bitter seeds in Germans Rise of Hitler & Nazi party (c. 1933) World War II: 19391945 Result of Nazi expansionist ideology; nearly succeeds The Modernist AvantGarde
The Modernist AvantGarde Aesthetic Trend of European Intellectuals Selfconscious pursuit of the ‘NEW’ Decried the dehumanization of modern society Against Realism, Naturalism & Sentimentality
Scorned their bourgeois associations Distrusted the realist claim of ‘objectivity’ Examples of AvantGarde movements: Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, DADA Bertolt Brecht (18981956)
Bertolt Brecht (18981956) Born to welltodo family in Augsburg, Germ.
Experience of WWI made him a pacifist
Became writer, poet, critic & playwright Opposed Nazis, sympathized w/ communists Had impact on German culture as ‘enfant terrible’ Escaped to Denmark, Scandinavia, then US After War, returns & starts ‘Berliner Ensemble’ Highly influential theatre in Europe, elsewhere Bertolt Brecht (cont’d)
Bertolt Brecht (cont’d) Major Plays Threepenny Opera (1928) Galileo (1938) Mother Courage & Her Children (1939) Good Woman of Setzuan (1943) The Private Lives of the Master Race (1945) The Caucasian Chalk Circle (1948) Epic Theatre
Epic Theatre Borrowed style of director Erwin Piscator Focus on sociopolitical ideas & not emotions Theatre is a place for Dialectic & Questioning Melodrama, Sentimentality manipulates audiences Realism is ineffective at addressing social problems Rejection of Aristotelian principles of drama
Worked against idea of dramatic illusion Immersion in story feeling of inevitability But how can you retrain audiences? Alienation Effect
Alienation Effect To keep audience in dialectical frame of mind
Epic Theatre uses different tactics: Episodic scene structure, songs, distant settings Constant reminders of theatrical experience:
empty stages & exposed lighting, slides to divide up scenes The audience should analyze character choice Alienation seeks to remove identification, empathy ...
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- Fall '08
- Mother Courage, Bertolt Brecht, Digraph