Context_of_Galileo - “Galileo” By Bertolt Brecht...

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Unformatted text preview: “Galileo” By Bertolt Brecht Germany in 1 half of 20 Cent. Germany in 1 st European Imperialist power (turn of Century) Kaiser Wilhelm II ­ regional & colonial ambitions World War I: 1914­1918 th Conflict w/ European powers, deepened & spread Treaty of Versailles establishes Weimar Republic Humiliating terms sowed bitter seeds in Germans Rise of Hitler & Nazi party (c. 1933) World War II: 1939­1945 Result of Nazi expansionist ideology; nearly succeeds The Modernist Avant­Garde The Modernist Avant­Garde Aesthetic Trend of European Intellectuals Self­conscious pursuit of the ‘NEW’ Decried the dehumanization of modern society Against Realism, Naturalism & Sentimentality Scorned their bourgeois associations Distrusted the realist claim of ‘objectivity’ Examples of Avant­Garde movements: Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, DADA Bertolt Brecht (1898­1956) Bertolt Brecht (1898­1956) Born to well­to­do family in Augsburg, Germ. Experience of WWI made him a pacifist Became writer, poet, critic & playwright Opposed Nazis, sympathized w/ communists Had impact on German culture as ‘enfant terrible’ Escaped to Denmark, Scandinavia, then US After War, returns & starts ‘Berliner Ensemble’ Highly influential theatre in Europe, elsewhere Bertolt Brecht (cont’d) Bertolt Brecht (cont’d) Major Plays Threepenny Opera (1928) Galileo (1938) Mother Courage & Her Children (1939) Good Woman of Setzuan (1943) The Private Lives of the Master Race (1945) The Caucasian Chalk Circle (1948) Epic Theatre Epic Theatre Borrowed style of director Erwin Piscator Focus on socio­political ideas & not emotions Theatre is a place for Dialectic & Questioning Melodrama, Sentimentality manipulates audiences Realism is ineffective at addressing social problems Rejection of Aristotelian principles of drama Worked against idea of dramatic illusion Immersion in story feeling of inevitability But how can you re­train audiences? Alienation Effect Alienation Effect To keep audience in dialectical frame of mind Epic Theatre uses different tactics: Episodic scene structure, songs, distant settings Constant reminders of theatrical experience: empty stages & exposed lighting, slides to divide up scenes The audience should analyze character choice Alienation seeks to remove identification, empathy ...
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