royle_ch2

royle_ch2 - 2 Islands Their 113111111111311 111111...

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Unformatted text preview: 2 Islands Their 113111111111311 111111 1111111111 T1111: distributinn 11nd 11111111111111 111' islands 1111111111 111.: 111111111111111 1111111 1111' gluhu, 11111 11111 11111111111111111 is 1111' 1111111 1"1'1'11. 1111111111 1111' 11111111111111111 L'1-1' 111111111111 :11 111111111111, 11.11.1111 11111 1111: 11111111111111 111' 11111: 111111111 11 11l11g11'111 11111111111. 111111'1'11 111'-1111111111111 .111 1111111111111: 111111111111:1 111 1 1.1111111111111111 1:11'11111111111111 1111111111111; 111 11111 1.11111 :11 1111' 111111' 1111'11111111111111 111111 111111'. 1s1111111 11111111111111 11111 1111111111: 111: 111111111'1111'11 111111 11.1.11 main 1::1111'1'1. F1111 111111 1111' 111.111111 111111 .1r1 1111111111111 111 1 11111111111111] 11111111 .11111 1.1111111' 111'igin .11111 1'1111n11111111 1111: 11111 111 111 1:11.111g1'1 111 1111' 11g11111111 11111111 11.1111 .11 1111111: 11111111111111 11111111 gh 11111111111111 .11111 .111 1111111 11111111111111 111111 111 1111111111113 1111111111: 11.1111 1'111111111' 1111111111111111 l1.1111111n111111 Fringc 1111111111 1111 111111 11111111 1111111 1111' 1111.11 1111111 1111111111111 1111111111, 1111111 111 1'1'11111'1111 1.1111111111111151 111111 111111111111111 (“111111 1111111111, 1111111 F111'1111'1' 11'11111 1111' 1:111:11 111'1111' 111111111111111 1111111 1111111 1111' 1111111111111 111' gl11l'111 1111111 111111 :11' 1111111: 111111111111 11111 11.-1 11111111111111 11111111111111; 111 [-1111'11111'1 1111: 1-‘1111'111111111'1'111111111 ‘1-'1's111.'1111 1111111 111' 1.111 1111' 1111111111 1111111111111, 1.1111 1111111: 1111' 111111 1.'1111::11111' 1111111111 111 1111' 1111;11111, 1111' 1111111111111 1111111111 E11111. 1111 Sicily: 1111111 in 1111' 111111: Lip-1111 111' 1111111111 1111111111 11111111 111' 511111; 111111111111111 111111 1111' 1p11111'n111111 ‘1’1111'111111 111111111 1111'11'. F111111111'1 1111.: 11111111111: 3'11 111:: 1'111'111‘1' 111111131 n1111'1'11g 11:1'1111111' 111-.1111 1111:11, 111'1n1'111111111 1'111'1'g1' 1s 1111111111111. 11' 1111 1111:1111 11'1: grinding 1:1:111 11111 1111111 111 111111 11 1111111111 :11 .1 1r.111111_11'1n 1111111 11111111111131—11 in 1111111111111 1.111111111111111 1.11111: 1111: 1111111 111 F1111 [111111 is 111111'1n__:-: 111111 1111' 1"1'111'111 15111111111111 [11111—111111 1'111'1'11 1.111 1'1'11111 1n 1.111111111111111. 111111 1111111 111111 1111111 1111 .11 11 11111111131111 11111111111111; 11111151111 111111111‘ 1111111111111 111111 11111111111111 :11 11'1'11 :11 1111111qu11l1-ss_ "1'111'11' 1111: 1111'1'1 111111111111. 11' 11111 11.111111111111111 1111:1111 111111. 1111' 11111111111 1111111 .11111 11111111111111 11111111111111! 1111111111111111" 111 11'111'11 1111* 111111: 111111111111 11111111n111111'11111111111111111111 111111 15111111 111111 1111111111 1111' H1111.1|:1'_1'.1s_ T111111 is 1111 1111111 11111111111111 111111; 11111' 111': 111.111111 1111111111 1111111 11111111111111: [.11-.111: 1111': 11 .1 111111111111111 111111' .1n11 1111111111111 11111111 11. 111 11111 1111111111 l11_1__1',1' [1111111 11111111111111 1.111g1'1 11.11111, 11111111 1111' 31111111 11'111'1'1' 1111' [11111111111111 111' 1111' 1111111111 111.111: 111111'1 1111111111111 1111' 111111111111111 1111111 215 Agrrgmfiflj ufislrsmi's and lithflsphtrt I'Jf tht SUUI‘l‘l fin‘ttrican platt- Vulcanicity alst: rtsults as tht mattrial from tht subducttd platt mtlts and1 as magma1 rists and may find its way It: tht surl'att as vulcanuts. Whtrt FWD nctanic platts inttt1 islands art fcrtmcd {Figurt ll }_ IL'J'nt platt su hducts undtr annthtr, as with tht tictanic-c-n-ntintntal anlisitins, and again vulcanicitjr' rtsults- In this sctnarid tht s'alcantits art not part nfa mountain rangt, but llas't thtir rants dn tht uctan fludr and1 dtptndtnt upun sta lts'tl, such I.rt_\~lcanc1s:s tan hrtalt tht surf'actJ fanning a volcanic island a.r-:_ Stunt way tif't' frtim this art a dttp cnctanic trtnch 1will ht f'tiuncl wht rt tht actual subduction is acturring {stt1 thr tsamplt1 Tarhutlt and Lutgtns1 193?; Wicandtr and MDHTDL 1995]- Tlms1 for t'samplt.r tht Japantst islands art as tht arts: of tht Iapan Trtnch: MDUI‘II Fuji, tht grtat symhtil ai'that natitin, with its classic ccrnt furmatitin, is an island arc snicanu- Tht Mutian Islands rist tn tht nurth hf“ tht Mutian Trtnch; flit Marianas td tht wtst cil'tht Mariana Trtnch, all part If tht Pacific Ring df Firt- Tht turs't Elf tht 1ndcmtsian artlliptlagci arists from .1 TIME] m dttp trtnch, tht Sunda Dr Ian Trtnch and tht Philippints art tfl tht wtst cuf tht Pl'nilippints Trtnch. Tht hugt trupticln df Mdunt Pinath an Luann Island in tht Philippincs in 1991, 1which killtd 343 ptcrplt and rtndtrtd lflflfiflfl l'Ichntltss1 has htth a rtttnt titamplt df tht s'ciltanic thrcts in attidn. Hut all tht land in ditst islands 1]tLIC£5ElI'l1}' has It: ht 1:crlcanic. L'J'Ir'tr gtnlflgical tiint tht islands art trciudtdl tl'ntir stdimtnu addtd td tht sta tld-nr, ptrhaps ts'tn rtacllihg flit tictan trtnch whtrt inttamdrphism can taltt plact- Lung- standing at maturt island arcs such as Iapan can and do ccrntaih a camplt}: df' scrlcanit rtnclss.r f'clldtd flJldg’lDr mttamurphustd stdimtntarg.’ racks and intrusisrt autumn.- rslafid: all: "~ ' Pan-“Hal mart m; a“ :Irrr-timdlr-s |Ill'|fl"'lllilru .l-innrr 2.1 island fistmaticrn as til-EL'EIEI1E piatts cuiiidt 1111111111: Iflri'i'jhnurrn'arr 1111.11 111111111 2:" 11511111111111 111-1115.- Th1: 11111::1: 111' 111111: 1111111113 11111 1111111 girl: 11.11: 111 1111111: 111' 1111* 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 11.1 will 11:: 1.1111111113111111 1.1-1:11:11: 0.1.111 111': M1: 11.111." l1111::11111: 1111111115 11.11: 1111111 11111111 111111: 1111111 1111: 1111:.1n 111'th11. Th1‘ir 111'igin 11' [11:11 111111'11111'111111111111' .1111] Fri-.111: 1111111111. 1.1111111111115111 111:1111'111:1:.111in: i51:u1111. 111111111111 :11 1111: P111111. .111: 11111 11111111111111 111111' 11111111111111] F111n1 11111111111: 11111111111. 5111111: 1111:111111: 1111111111 :11": 1111111111111. 1111111111111 11'11111 3111:1111: 11111111111111 1:11 1111: 11111111111 11111111 [19219, p. 201. Th1:.11: 1111111111: N111 lIii-111111111111 .11111 31:11 3111111111- 11111111 .1111: 11111.11: 11111111111 111.r 1:111: up11'111111g 111'111:1g111:1 111 111: 111i11111'1:1111i1' ri11g111 [12.111111 11111111111111 111111 I.augh111n. 1991111. 1111.11: 11p11'1:11111g.1 1111111 11111111111111“: 11*1'1111111' 1111111: 1111131111. 1311: 1:1;15111: 1:11:1n1p-11‘ 11' 1111: 111111-1111311111: 11111;: 11111111 111.111.1111 11111111111111 11111.1 3111111111 11111111 1111111 1111111: 111' 1111: 1511111111111. an1 1:111 [11:11:11 1.11.1111]. n111'1h 111' 11:1:1111111. 1:111: 1111g1: 1'u11.1 11111111111111 1111'111lgi1 1111: 31211111. 111111.111: 1111119111; 1::111' 11111111111 :11: 1.111111: 111:11:11: 11.1.11111 1':.11'l1i11g 1111: 111111111: :11 51 1":1ul‘11 11.111111 111 1111* 11111111 1111111111. 31111111 1111' 1111 11111111111 i: 1111111 111111111: 11111'111-111-11111 11.1 11.11111111111 1.11.111111 111111.111 11:. 171111111 .1111] 1111*11111H'1111111111 111 11.1 gmup. 111: 11111: turning, 111 1:111: 111.11 .11111 111111111111, 11111111111111111111111: 11111111: 111:.1 11*1'1‘1 .11: 1111111111: 11111111. T11111- i:11.11111_1 .111: 1111 5111111g111111' 111:1:111' [11111111111111'1111 11111.11- L111 3.11:111111‘111 11l111L‘l'1 91'" 111111 111111: .111: 11-11- 1'1111'11n11' [1111111, 111111111 111' 1111111] 1.1111: {Figurc 2.2]. 111.11: including. 1111: 111131111 Linn-:11 11111111111111 :11 115‘} 111. 11111 11111111113111 1.1 1111: 111111111 part 1111111: 1.1131111 111111 11 high 1111111111111 111 L11: 11151111111 1:11: 11111g1'11p1111: 1111111111] .11111 1111:1111 111'11’ 51111 111111 111' 11111111111111“ p11 111111111111. This. 11.11 111111111 111- 1111311 11111111 1h: 111111 111111: :11111 [311111 11111111111111 11:11 111111 i11111'1:11 i: 11:11 1111111 11.11.111 1111;111:111 1':g1:1.11:i1111- 11111111 1113111111111111'1 1311111111111 i1. 1111111".1'111111gc1'1111111111111111111 1.11111'gc11111'11 1111 1111: 111.11 1:11.111 11:11:11'111 11.1 11111111111: pr1t1511111i1111 111' 111:1'11'1‘1111 25 :11111 1TH 111111 1111111111111 1111111111111 1911171- The 11111'111' 1111.11111'11111i11m111 1.1 1111111111111] 111' 1111.11111' 11111111. 11:11:11: 1111': 1111111 :11111 1111111111. 1111: 111111111: 11 1111111111: .11111 111i11111'11111111111 11.1.1 11111 [1111511111111] 1111‘ 1111'. Much 111' 1111: 311:1 is 11111 1111;111:111. 11111 1|1i11 1111111111111 11 1111111111191 r'1_1 1111:1111]: :11 19111.7 [1111111111 11111111: 111'."11.1:1:111.1'1111: "Furl-11111111111111.1111: 111111 1111: h:1r1'1:11 11'11:h11::::1_111111-.11 51:11:11 111111 1111: 11111111111; £11pf1111111111 11111511119131" 11:1. 1111]. :"1. 11:11 1‘111'1 1111111 1111* 13111111111111 11111111111111: 11:11] 11111111111111.1111 1111111: 111113111. 11111.11111'1111:11:11'grcct1cr1' 1.1 [11111111111 by :1 11:11:11111' 11111'11111111111 11111111. #ch11111 11111111 [P111111piu'111'1fi'11r11]. 1111' 11111.1 111'11'i1i1'11 :11'1: 1115111111111 111' 11:11:11 1111111111111111 111111.11: 11.111111111111111 1::11'r1' 1111111 111 11131 1.11.11 .11111 1111111111: 1111111 111111 .1 11:1'1ili1111 111111111111 111 11111111 111 1111111111. 511111 [11111111111113 11111111 1111111- 111111" 1151111111111 111 111:1:111'111' 11111111i111t11 111'1:r 11111111 111' 111:: 111.11111 11 11 1111111 1111111111 11111111; 1111.1 13111111111111: i1. 11:1 11'1:11.L1 111111' 1111111111. Th1:r1: 11.1.1 111111 1111 1:111:11 1'1111'111111' .11'111'111' 111 1111:1111i1111‘1 r1'1:11r111:1_1 1111.1111'1' .1111 1:1: 1E5 11111111111 111 15 111. 11111 111 g1'11111g11'111 11111111 1111: 1111111113111: 11; 11:11:11: .11111 11.1 1111111111113: 1111111111 11:: h: rcgardud .11 1::11i111'1- 1111111111111 1111 1111* 1111;: 1111:1'1: 11. 1111111: .11111'11'1'. T111: 1'1111111111 [11:11 1.1 11111111 11:1 Liu11h.1 111111 1111111111 111 19111. 11:111ng 111 1:11: 1111111111'11r1' 1:1'111'1uti1111 111' 1111: 111.11111. '1'11 1111: 111111111 [111111111 :11111u11d1 111111 11111 1111'111g1' 111111 1:11:11 guy-1111 and 11.11 11:11.1 1'1:r_1' 11:1:1:n1: 111:1i1'1r1' in 2 H :1 hqrrgi'npsts alt-infra ad's J-'i:_m:n' 2.2 Vulcanic lcatntcs tJ-n :‘ksaccnsiun Islancl1 19W shc frcclucnt crnptinns nf Hcclda cm thc main Island- flutpnurings nf' lava nntn Huc'nnac}.r in fi'lc nfi'sllnl'c 1lr'I.-'cstman Islands in 1913 lcd tn EDD!) inhabitants lacing cs'acnatcd Bar marl}.r sis Innnths. This was thc cruptinn 1s'hctc scan'atcr hnscs 1accn: usccl I'D cunt rhc 1ciscnvns advancing lava, which sas'cd thc tnwn ccntrc and hashnur. Thu: barb-crux“ ncvcr cinscd and on: fish- prnccssin g filflflll‘j‘ stas'cd wnrlting clnrting thc crisis. Clfl‘ thc Wcstman Islands, Surtscsr Islancl arnsc fmm thc sca in 1963. MILf-nccanic ridgcs in thc Indian Dccan havc nnt icd tn thc Enrmatinn nf rnanj.r islands1 csccpi: for thc Mascarcnc Ridgc which snrfaccs in hlEh 1.'c:nlvcanic islands in thc Scschclics, Mauritius, aJsc: Ecunicrn, Is'hc rc thc I'itcnn dc la Fnur- naisc displays much cs'idcncc nf rcccnt activity. Furthcr snnth thc in hnspitahtc liotht‘gnclcnF Hcard ancl l's-lacclnnalcl Islands sit astridc chc Ecrguclcn Ridgc. 1n thc Pacific lIL'il'c-can and suns-landing scas thcrc arc sciat'nxclj.r ricw rnid-nccanic riclgc islands. Eastcr Island [Rana Hui] is an thc East Pacific BJclgc whcj'c thc Pacific platc discrgcs tram thc Nazca plat-c. lDfi'lcr cuccsusic Islands, cspcciaLE]: in thc Pacific. nn'c thcir t'nrmatinn tn hnt spat b‘LfiElnlEilT {Fignrc 2.3]. Thc tllcc-rs' hcrc is fisat IrJIc carti't‘s crust cnntai ns ccrrain arcas nt'ss'cakncfi, n11ich, at irrcguiarintcn'als, will gis'c n11}r undcr prcssurc frnm tl'lc mnltcn cnrc hcncatll. Th: uppcr mantlc and nccanic crust can lac larnltcn tn rnngh and, at such tinlcs, thcrc is an nntpcuunng nl’las'a [J'L'IL clcpcnclcnt Lip-Ian sca Icscl again as n'cii as upnn thc magnitudc uf thc crnp’tinns1 can larcak thc sca surfacc and harm an nccanic ‘r'LIEIC'JI'LlLI island. Tllc irrcsistilalc mnvcmcnt iris sin-J's: Isrrii'j-irrmminfl and mi mar 29 "hm-E slabancu '.| rlfl'l'il" IJI'I1 Finns-s 2.3 island I'nrmaiidn Frum hut spat 1r'uh.::inicil'§r' :Jf thc [cctcinic plats: talscs shc Fusing island [ll] Ii]: Iithusphcrc away fmm shc has spur. thn shc ncss ETUPLlDI'l takcs piacc. anuthcr island can harm car thc uriginal island lac addcd Tc: 1with shc ncw mascrial- Which happcns dcpcnds can shc tinic hchs'ccn crupcicnns and thcir inagnirnclc. is dis: prcnccss rcpcass issclfa chain rJf 1anlcanic islands is furnich rcprcscnting pass and prcscnn f_ if any} :isTIjL'ilT m'cr thi: hut spur. Thc Hawaiian Island chain is shc classic casc. I-Icrc thcr-c arc a nnnihcr crf I..'Ira]can.ni:s cifdifi‘crcns agc cin thc big island, Hawaii itscli‘. "H1: must rcccnt and l'l'lEI-EI castcrh' is Kilauca ('I-‘igu ms 2 .4.- ], acsis'cls' crupsing as this is n'ritccn, wid: nuiiscn lava pausing fi'dm its fianls through a has tnh-c inn] shc UsiffllL with a pcrmancnt ciuad nf stcain and nusiuus gascs lacing prdduccd as a rcsnit- Th: ushcr 1ccrlcaricmss dn Lhc island L'If Hawaii an: sci its ncirdmcst. Cansinuing alcrng that dircctic'm, far [has is shc linc talscn by d1: Pacific Platc.’ an: sh: dlhcr islands uI' [hc Hawaii chain such as Maui, l's-inlnkai and IL'Ial'inp all rcrnus':d fi'din thc hm spas. ‘s'unng s‘ulcanic islands ufchis naturc arc fiarmcd of light basaltic mascrial, Ia‘hich has Iirrlc rcsissancc tn crcisicrnal fiarccs Rainstm'ms ran Tahici1 [’nr csamplc1scc sh: island's numcr-crus watcrilslls rum intu currcnts cui— brawn watcs' tumbling dds-.11 rhc prccipisatc shurciinc insu shc sca. Thcsc high islands an: alsc: suhjcct sci cmnpactiun and snl‘ssidcncc undcr [hclr ms'n wcighn 3i] flhHs-‘fiflfflflfli'fl' Hymns: 1'qule 2.4 Kilaut'a 'I.'I::iluu.'a.r|.r_11 Hawaii lslcn'ld1 Hawaii1 USE, 19‘4"? typically dcclinin g at abnut nnc ccntinsctrc pct ccntury. Lh'cr tins: such islands can slip inth thc sca and thc Hawaiian chain dlcs can with a attics cit'atnlis and rccfs such as Pcati ancl [-Icrnscs Es.th and Kurt: Est-tle cht cnmc thc Milwan itcc Scas'ncu ants, and has“:st thcnt1 thc Empcrnr Scamnnnts {Wicandcr and Manna; 1995}. Un ran: nccasi-n-ns l'l'l-I: ntnnntain J'rLight tisc again, to farm a flat-tnplxd maknisn island iMitchcil, 1939}. In trnpicai scas thcst' collapsing 1nnlcanic leantis arc assnciatcd with thc matinn nf atnlls. Chatics Darwin was an carh' ss'litcr crn thth fisnnan'nn. {lfltfll J'ccfs will thrns in thc right cnluiitinns nfwarmds, light and ntttticntsT hath nfl'cnntincnts, as 1.s'ith thc lliircat Barricr chf nt'i‘i'itustlaiia, and around high islands. Tahiti has a fin: rcct', with start: nt'it undcr sca Ics'cl but with arcas rising ahtn'c sca ics'c] thanks tcr thc dcpnsit and capttttc nf' hrnltcn cars]. In Pnh'ncsiasnch ntt‘islands arc callccl mam- It'thcrc is rclath'c sca ics'c] risc, as thcrc wnnld hL' 1s-‘ith an. island sinking, it is tussilalc fnr thc rccfs tun cnntinnc tn- sun'h'c. Thc lis'ing part nfdtc rcct' can build upnn thc dcad and dying part hacinw; tltc sinking nf' Iiic island taking thc rnntcd rccfdtnrn with it tudcpths whctc thc coral animals cannnt sni's'h'c. Us'ct Elm-L thc island siniting might scc just tltc tips nt'thc landmass within a stint disnuit rcct'. In thc cnd thc island 1.1.‘Il'3llj' disappcars and t:r|l1_.' thc 1'-r:n::iislcl‘t1 and thc mum islands and thc rccf t'nrnt an atnil- This snrrnnnds incnntplctch' a lagnun widi rcEath-‘clg; shallnw watct that thc sunltcn m-n-untain. Th1: watcr nn tl'n: nutcan sidc nfthc :11'flll f rcct' is much dccpcr. Frcnch Pnlyncsiah Sui-.ncictsr Islands farm a pcriitcs csamplc nf' this pmccss. T shit: and its ncighhcrur, Mmrca, arc high Islands with a surrnnnding rcct'rcprcscntingthirh' mung 1unicanic activity. Tahiti itscifis a dnuh-lc islands: Ilrrt't'fitr'nrrrn'an rtm'l' Harm't 3] s‘nlcanic island with Tahiti ltu hung ann-thcr rnughls' circular mass that ahuts nntn thc huggct, ncar-cil'cular Iandntass that is Tahiti. Tn thc 1a'cst thc islands arc nldcr and MW hcgun tn sinit'. Hnta linra and. Maupiti hat'c Inst tltc tips nl'thc nncc cstcnsh'c high islands' ntnnntalnnus land ntass harming islands within thcir iagunns. Tn l'l'l'l'I wcst again an: truc atnlls, ls-iauplltam Manual: and h-Intu Um: with nnthinbr Lamalnang thc suri'acc n’r'thclr lagtmns. This ragith anrcnch Fuls'ncsia thus has islands and atnIIs at all sntgcs nf this ntudcl. Many nthcr Pacific natlnns am: just atnlls. Esatnplcs arc T'Lwaln‘ Inn-st ut'thc scparatc island chains that malt: up Kiribati, as such as thc Marshall Islands with its twn rnws tafatnlls, thc Ratalt and thc Kalil-t chains. Cansml :‘sl'n: mi: lLitn'rcnt ctrastal islands h:wc nnrntalls' hccn ctcatcd thrnugh thc applicatinn nF nun-volcanic fiarccs- 'I'hcs' arc nr'tcn assnciatcd with thc actlnn nfsca lct'c] risc inlltns'ing thc cnding afar: icc agc. 'l'lr'atct'1 fiatntcth' Inchcd mm M: L'rndics such as glacicts tin land nr Icc shccts at sca, ntclts and sca Ict'cls nsc, with tltc rcsnlt that stnnc placcs uncc jnincd hccnntc scparatcd. Thns thcrc wcl'c land hn'dgcs hctwccn thc Eurnpcan cnntmcnt tn wltat was tn hccnntc thc island nt' Lircat I-ll'itain and acl'nss tn lrcland. Thcl'c arc cntrcnt cnncctns ahnut sca Ics'cl risc cnnscqucnt nnw nn-t uptm thc cnding nf an icc agc but npnn glnhal warming“ prnhahh' rcsultnng l-I'fll'l'l. amnI-tnnd's actis'ntics. Rapid sca Ics'cl risc cnnld scc thc disanpcantncc nI' Itnr-Is'ing island grnnns such as thc l'Ir-Ialdis'cs, thc Marshall Islands and many: nthcts. Sca lcs'c] risc wnuld alsn crcatc ncw islands l'w thc flint-ding, nl' Inst-lying cnntincntal rcgitrns, which 1.s'nuld incs'itahls' snrrnnnd stnnc arcas nfrciatwclt' highcr gmund L'rs' watct'. This is cnntpcnsatinn nnh' in numcncal tcl'nts; thcrc is litth that can h-t said in ias'n-nr nfsca Ics'cl risc- Matw nthcr cnasta] islands arc cIcarls' tltc ptnduct nf crnsinn, thc pnwcr nl' thc sca n-t nthcr tiirccs scparating thcin ftnln thcir landntass. 'I'hc scqucncc lcading tn thi: t'nnnatinn nt'sca stac Its s'ia arcs and natural atchcs is Familiar tu studcnts nfgcngt‘apht' frnln an carh.‘ agc- Thc incs-itahihts' nf snch pmgrcssinn can still cumc as a su rptisc, l'lu'tl'fl'tl', and small islands arc nlwu :uusls' at particular risI-t fi’tnn ctnsinn t'nrccs1 hang ht“ dcfinitinn latgclj' cnastal nuncs- In thc wcstcrn part nf T’nncc Edward Island in Llanada, thc ccnnnnn' is in smnc difficulty and thc Inca] dct'clnpmcnt [{IIII'PUIFJEIHJ'I had intnninccd a tnnI'Isrn ntarlsctinhr.r stratcgy L'nascd tn an uncut arnund “Elcphant Rancid- This was a Iargc stacit with a natural arch at its scannrd cnd that madc IT haul-:1 indccd, Iil-tc an clcphant~ thc scaward arm n’r'thc arch hcing its trunlt. 1i.thch1 thc cnast hcrc is ut't'aitls' snft sandstnnc and is suhjcct tn quitc sct'ctc and rapid ctnsinn. Us'cr thc lilhristntas hniidat's at thc and {if 1993 thc clcphant inst its trunk and thc tnurism stratcgj: was dcs‘astatcd1 althnugh El‘lL'j' ntadc thc hcst nl'it 1with 1ntcrnct rcpnrts nn thc hcalth nf thc hcast and snntc pcnplc nnw gn tn scc whcrc thc clcphant had hccn- :"t snggcstinn that thc trunlt shnnld hc rcplaccd [w a tiht'cglass nrnsthcsis was tcjcctcd- In duc cnursc ctsastal crnsinn 1.s'iIl incs'nahls' prndncc annthct stack. and annthcr clcphant might lac I‘lfll'l'l. 32 :1 Lnrraqr'npfn elf ian mils The cuast uf Liuaugsi prus'ince near Lluilin in [lhiua is nutahle fur its limestune pillar islands- These result frnm weathering and ertisiunal princesses I11 tlus ltarstic landscape1 which have rendereei deep hecls :if Iiniestnne intis :udirid ual pillars and blue its. 1Ill-"here the hase ufthe weathering actii'its' Is nuw heluw present sea lei'e]1 islands result. IEither liniestiine ciiastal islands are tu he ftiund elsewhere, such as tiff the ctiast nf lL'rtiatia. l|2_ilaci-al erusnun can scisur triiughs lIIEElI a landscape that1 with subsequent sea level rise after the end [if the ace age. hectiiue [lists-Lied. iiirnnng islands. Uhe esample is the eastern cnast uf I.'._iteen]and1 wluch is a magnificent1 ctunpllcated tangle uf Islands and peninsulas. The ragged island fringe uf s-uurhern Chile wuuld aisu have been atl'ected hjr glaciatitin in this was: The ‘atue Islands be tween Iceland and Sciitland mi'e their :nigin tu getting): Instsfar as the {'F‘l'CF-lll landniass is the result (if 1rislcanic fiirces1 basaltic titlttmuriitgs d uring the tertiary era. Hmret'er. the esistc uce nuw and the actual separatitin iii the Farues ifltfl 13 principal islands. plus disitens uf stacks and rides. tiwe iuuch tn the getilugicalls’ recent actiuu tifglaciatiun- 'l'his prucess cUt trtsughs that have suhsequelitlsr heen flunded. tiirniiug impressive flurds and straits. which nnw separate the landmass intu different islands. Streuun' Island. tiar example. is cut intt: his“ a number :if fltitds1 hut hetss'een Strcuun' and Es'sturus' and 'L-itreniuy and irial-gar the truughs furmecl straits which nuw separate Strenim' frum its neighL'I-uuring islands- lI2_ilacial deptisitlun can lead tn the thrmatitin uflslands, tun. Fur esample, in Ineland there are mam' thuusands tifdrun'llins1 small I'nunded hills made up ufdept-sits laid dtiwn under an ice sheet. In {ilew lias' tin the west ctsast a dl'uniiin sssurm has been fltitided h]: sea level ruse and this has is studded with scnres tif small Islands. which are the damned drumlans pulsing their heads ahin'e the 1.t'ater. {'J'n the east cuast the Handing, tit" Strangfiird laiugh has aisti led tu a scatter iif islands. Depusititinal ctiastal prucesses nut cunnected directly: with glaciatiun can alsti tiarni islands. Thus, the eastern cuast hf the United States has a fringe 01' islands1 mam' {ifss'hich are made up ut'cuastal sand deptisits. Deptssitiun uf ris'erinc material can alsii furm cuastal Islands when the energy uf the river is dissipated by its arrival at the sea1 upuu which material carried in suspensiun ur hjr tractiein as released and dep-usited. Linder certain cunditiuus deltas are iisrmcd and such dcpnsits can auei dei see the furmatiun uf line-lying islands. 'l'hus Egypt's Hile Delta has hundreds uf small islands within it. Where the Lianges st'steiu hits the sea in the 1ia3-‘ufllcugal Efll'l'l'll'lg huge hsads ufdepusits duwn frtrni the Himalayas. similar haw-lying. silty islands iiirm. Such is the pressure tin land restsurees in Bangladesh that these islands are culunised hi: farmers anel fisherfullt. Sadly they: may ti-nls' prin'e tu he ephemeral features- The Bay is subject In severe flnuding an a frequent basis thruugh the uperatitin ufmnnsnunal 1.s'e-atl'ier systems anclfur thrtnlgh esccssn'c thaws uf water thruugh the riser ss'steni. [In such u-ccasiuns the cuastal silt islands can he Inundated ur es'en washed anus, with heas's' luss u-t' life a cuminuu result. Depusitiunal prticesses can actuailjr talte place stnue was uffshnre if the fsimm's: rirrir_|‘i1r'mntfarr m-rri unlm'r 33 cnnditiuns, twincipalls' the interactinn nfenrrents, nr nthermeans ss'hel'ehs' a stream nf water is slnn‘ed, mean it is nn Inngcr alale tn cnntinue tn carrs' its lnad in stlspcnsinn and it is dep-nsited. Thus Sable Island is nnire than 15!} km ni‘l' Hns'a .‘icntia, hut is entircls' cnmpnsecl ni' sand, and its nri gin is the result nfthe fn-rces ni' cnastal cmsinn, Et'aa'L'iputTal'it in nfsediment and clep: isitinn- Thus despite its distance fi'nm the landmass, it is still a cnntinental rather than an nceamc island in terms nf its ringins- Euch depnsitinn can alsn remns'e insuLLrits'; ttrnslacrlns are depnsitiunal landfnrnts that cnnnect 1.s'hat 1.Ictiulcl hate been a true island tn a nearby cnast ul' annther isLtnd. St hiinian's Isle is a fine esample i'rnn1. the Shetland grnup, whilst the Iiianadian Magdalen Islands;r Isles de la Madeleine in the St Ian'rcnce fnrm an archipelagn nfss'hat were nnce eight separate landmasses, all but nne nnss' linked hs' a cnmplicateel anel estcnsis'c tnml'n-nln system- The laingengraphg.r nf' islands Islands are tii'ten rather unusual and interesting places in hinlngical terms isee, fnr esample, lLihester and ls-icLiI'egnr's Australia‘s rm'iri islands [ 199?]: alsn Quammen, 199p]- Typically an island has a restricted range nfspecics nf hnth flnra and fauna cnmpareel tn thnse nfa cnntincntal regiun 1urith similar climatic and nther characteristics- Islands are isnlated,‘ this means that same species mas- nnt have been able tn reach the landmass. Lireat Britain has a mnrc restricted fauna than France; Irelanel, nft' Lireat Britain, has a mnre restricted fauna still, laclcing snakes and mules, fur esample. The Irish ni'fshnre islands have a rnnrc restricted fauna than mainland Ireland- Similarly, ail-tnmcr Island nff n'est Wales has nnls' five species nf mammals [es‘clueling hats} cnntparcd tn 3‘} tilt the mainland uppnsitc. All were prnl'nal'rls' accidentally intrnduced in: nianlsind. Isnlatinn can alsn cnt species nff and tlus may, given sufficient time, see them adapt tn the specific challenges anel nppnrtunities ni'their ens'irnnmcnt h]: es'nls'ing amp new fnrms- Thus, nn Skinner Island, the intrnduced s'nle has hecnme an endemic snl'r-species, the Sitnmcr 1'title: It is clnselg.‘ related tn the L'nanlc s'nle tiaund nn the mainland 1urith 1.s'hich it 1.Ieill intcrhreed. Hnss'cs'er, its larger sire, lighter cnlnur and differences in its slcull and dcntitinn, are sufficient list it tn he cnnsidcred an island race n-r sub-species. I's'n 1.‘l1]-L1l‘I-E, ifit remains isnlated fur a lnng ennugh perincl it 1.s'ill gradually es'nls'e intu a separate species. [West 1nil-"ales l“'-.':'itl.tealn.ts~ Trust, Ltd, p. 2.23 (“in Sncntm in the lLinli uf r'ldcn ahnut nne third nf the 35D plants sn far identified are unique. The Hana] Hntamcal lLiardens nf Edinburgh were, in the mid-1991]; ss'nrlting cm a blueprint tn try and ensure that when, ines'ital'rls', increased dcs'elnpmem cnmes tn the “Lilli” islanders, minimal disruptinn mil he caused tn the ccnss'stcm. .fiscensinn Island is fantnus as a nesting place [if the Lireen Turtle [{iiri'iimin mydnri {ls-lurtamcr anel Iiiarr, Nil-l}, but is 3-1- ..‘l jrrwmpfs'r uj't'n'rt Hat's signiticant tu inning fur uthci' spccics, tun. 'l'hcrc arc tn'n cndcmic hlrds— thc .Jisccnsiun Frigatc Bird [Fitnnm autism] and thc Rcd Ptititctl Iiuuhy [sum sm'n]- Titc tc arc tcn cndcsnic plants: :1 nqmnmmn mn'mt'mn'sipussihly cs tinct]; Aspirin-rm: itssmn'rim's; is’i'pi'n'mfimn asti'ssssrmsr; apsrsurn'nsmsapttrunn E ripfirirfil'n si'innlisl'dis; Xipiiripsrrtr nscsnsisnsissr, .lri'm'nttt'n psnjmrnn'rnn I’t‘rm nsrnsnlm'n Hrysrm's assi'nn'sms {tar Hpsr'slmirrs n'm‘ns]; and Uhfi'nmndm an'mn'unis t nnw thnugitt tn hc cstinct]. Titcrc arc ninc cndc mic marinc fish, up TU 26 cndcmic tcl'rcsttia] inycrtchtatcs tl‘icitula1 1999') and an cnclcmic shi'mtu1 Free-(mas msrm‘sum's. t-‘isccnsiun is 1 I3|i|I kin frnin thc nc arcst iancl, thc island ufSt Hclcna- Santa [iatalina Island, by cuntmst, is just nt'fthc cuast ufntalnland lLialiflsri'u'a but has naught cndcntic spccics -.r unc cui'titcm, 'l'crha Santa {Es‘t'rnt't'rtt'nn ti'nsh'ncj' in its prutcctis'c cagc1 is shnwn In Fugurc 2.5]. It is nut thc ahs-niun: distancc ftnin land that is unpnttant, but thc lct'cl ufisnlatu‘m. Thus titcrc :s a shccp hrccd, titc Sway, nn thc isiancls ui' Essay and I-lit'ta in thc Scuttish St Klida gtuup- This scparatc spccics i'cscinhlcs thc primitiyc chhthic shccp first hmugitt tcu Britain ahuut Elilil] HLI and1 lat-ti" nntn 5t Kilcla whctc th cy sui'yiyc thanks tn thc isnlatiun uf tI'Icsc islands [Bil-311.. 19TH- Thcs'c is aisu a spccics ni' scass'ccdcating shccp un Hurtit litannalclsayr 'm Urltncy: almur italf thc six: in cunycntlunal shccp. .l'tlsn Ln flritncy. un Swuna island, thc cattlc hayc l'rccn fara] fur ’rinu‘ HI" ’rlyc gcnctatiuns smcc thc human pupulatiun lcft atnund thc latc lfiflis. Titus, thcy hayc I'IIIJII hccn cs'yvuscd tn nthct htn'inc influcnccs, gcncs ul' tu human scicctiun. From 1%, thus: cattlc hayc hccn rcgai'dccl as a scparat-c spccics, hcing su listcd in thc Warln' Distiirnm'y Ifle'FEUi'rJt‘llf Ernest's. 'I'hi'uugit thcir silt: andfur isniaIi-u-n, Islands may Iaclt a fill] sct cif trnpiuc lcs'cis. Titc tup cai'nuym'c is usually miss-cdw whichi un tinccasiun1 has sccn island. spccics rcact tn this iaclt ut'thi'cat. Thus, un a nulnhcr ufislands, birds hccamc tlaghticss1 thci'c lacing nu nccd fut cscap-c li'um a prcdatur. :"inurhci' L'cthun wuuld lac that tu tai-tc flight urn a small island might scc a land hii'd L'rlnwn I'L'tint thc island tya’th limatcd pcassihliitlcs Inf h-cin g ahic tn cumin. '1" hc cstanct dcnlu taf Mauritius .‘Rngflmsnsnflnmsi is thc must i'ainnus cs‘amplc uflnsulal' Iligittlcssncss; nthci's arc titc lsiwl uf ch Ecaiand {:lpti'rys mim‘n it's} and that archipclagu‘s flightlcss raiL thc Snurh Island taltaitv: {Prawn-Hrs unsurdfil- :"innthci' is thc illgitticss cntnmtant {it'thc |Lialacragus that Darwin saw. Lacit uf cuntpctitlnn may aisu scc spucics talsc nn unusual chai'actcnstics tu csplnit cctaluglca] nichcs nut tai-tcn in thc usual way. .-"muthci' charactci'istic ui' island iauna is that 1.yitltn-ut [cat with a I'cstIactcd tangc isi'] pl'cdattrrs1 thc cumpcntis'c adt'antagcs nt'spccd and agility may nut hc rcquircd and thc spcclcs may L'cact tn a icss challcngcd iiti: L'ry incrcasiug in siltc. Island gigantism is fairly cummun as with thc giant turtuiscs {if :‘ddahra and thc giant prcitcnsilc-taiicd sltinlt {Eirarnti'nj rit'thc Strlun‘mn Islands. Thu Suitimuns alsu hays: giant tats- Thc must nutahlc casc if an island haying an unu sua] hi: igc: igtaphy Is that nf Madagascar witci'c Eli pct ccnt ui'lail'd succics1 35 p-ci' ccnt [if plants and 95 pct ccnt uf rcptilcs an: cndclnic. :‘di thc land mammals [sayc rcccnt isltruductiunsi1 must tantnusly Madagascar's pi'usunian pi'imatcs, thc many sp-ccics ut‘iciuun arc 3:1 .-1__11rrr.l_.11'111rr1'1_1 111-111.: 1111': 11:1: thund :1s:11'h:r:_ Endlfl'1 . -I.1dag:1s:ar 1s :1 1111-11: pin:: with :1 high hirth rat: and this is r:t1::::d in pr:ssnr:s :111 :11: :111'in111111:n:, 11'hi1:h s:: its unlqn: h11‘1di1':t1-.itl_.' 11nd:r thr:at'_ “Madagascar: th: haul: 11': mils: 11"111’. 1:1':a111:d a tn11t:r issucd by: th: Wnrld 1Ie'l’ildhl': Fund 1's:: alsn hiale 199-11. Mit:h:|l 11'a_1':s lyrical ahnnt island hi11g:11gn1ph1' Ingarding Ha11'a1i'. I-Iad Darwin :a]|:d :1: Hawaii al't:1' his hist11r1: 11.11: :11 l|2_1'a].11'1a1__,*:1s :1l'1nard :h: HMS 3mm: in 115311":1 l1: 11'1111ld hardly; hav: 11::11 al'rl: 1'0- :11-ntail1 his :1::i::n1:1111 1111' i1: 11111.1ld ha1': s::n :1::1111pl:s 1111' :1=11l11:11111 1:111:11 11'11Llld ha1': mad: thus: un :11: Lialapagns pal: hf: :111nparisnn. Tin}: lli:s 11:11': grnn'n intn giantn daisi:s hav: tnrn:d intn shrubs: :ri:l;:1s ha1': gun: l'rlind1 gardm lnhchas ha1': :1'11l1':d intn t1'::s1 :at:rpillars ha1': l1:::1n1: :a1'11i1'111'111ls1 g::s: 11:11:: ::as:d :11 th:, and sum: small hirds |1a1': :1':n l1:::1n1: ralnpir:s. 111:1“: at: 11nln:1'n1ls sp::1:s 11fhn11:_' 1:1'::J'.:-:t1.1 111:1113' brilliantly :11]:1L11':d 1111: 1111: all 111' th:n1 :at h11n:}'_ 511m: pr:t':t grnhs p1'is:d frnni hat}: and 11:11': 11:11: fin: th: 11111 lils: 11'11-11-1111:: 1::rs 11'111]: 11th::s ha1': :1'0h':d :11 :at 11:11:11 and 11:11': :nngh l1::1l:s lih: tin:]1:s_ lh-iit:l1:|l. 1939,11. 159':- Risk: 1: 1111': mi spwin Island 111::i111.1 I111: 11th:: asp::ts nf insular 1:I1'l'it'ur_111111:11ts1 ar: :1: risl-t. Dangfls :an in:l11d: :11: :111':1:t in1pact1rr'n1nn. Th: dndn :uuld 11:1: 111' 1min and: 111itia111' :111111'aj1', did 1111: 11mm: that it shuuld at 1:111: :11: :11 run mm: :11: l'Jnt:h s1i1111's 11:11:11 its island 11f Mauritius 11111; dis::11':1':d 111 1593. E11131 if :11: 11111111 l:a1'n:d tn I'IJLL :h:1_.' :11L11d 11:1: run fast {111.1ng11 and th: sp::i:s11':1_s nip-:11 nut hf: al'nnn: 11131. _-"1 l:111:11_.' stnfltd dndn gr::ts 1'1sin1ts :11 th: inns: 1.1111 111 PM: Lunis. I: is 1111: that :11111111:11tal s}1::i:s an: 11:::ss-11'il}: s-af:—:h: :1::111ctu1n in 1":1 H- :11 1h: pass:ng:r pigmn [Eunipr'nnr rrrlryrammrs], a Hnrtlt in1:rl:a11 sp::i:s thnngh: 11:- ha1': nnn1h:r:d 1n pin-Linlnnlhian tiin:s up :115 hullinn1 t::1:h:s L11-. that. I: is tha: island sp::i:s1 d:1':111ping i11 L'ifllJElulL may h:11': :1':n I:ss ability: :11 a1'11-id 11:11: thr:a:s, l1: th:s: frnni duh-swinging. sailnrs 111' 11111111 gums and 111i:r11l1:s_ linth island llura and fauna ar: :1: 1'1le l'l'nm i11t1'11dn::d prudaturs. {1'11 ."I._'-.::ns111-n Island t]1:1': 11':r: I111 mammalian pr:da:urs h:li.1r: 1h: island‘s dis1:n1':1'1' by humans- :1: that tin1: :11: island was :1111111is:d :11: many ::ns :11 thnnsands 111' hit-:11 all 111':r Its i:111':1' slnp:s. 'l'h:n, in IBIS, th: British tnnh :11: island :11 garrisn-n it against Fr:11:h :1:t:n1pts I11 11111-unt r:s1:11: :l't'nrts fur Hapnluni 1111111 1111 St H:l:na prisnn. Th:1-' 1':l:.1s:d cats :11 :1111tr111 rats1 11'J1i1:h had :mn: 1mm :11: island th:-n1 ships- H:1n‘:1':rfi th: :ats aim at: :11: 11:stling s::1l'+it'ds and, with abundant fnuds11pp|i:sfirapndh' gr:11' in 11n111l'1:r1_ 111' 11124: r:11d:n:s {111111111111:d 11f l1:in g :11':r-r11n 1'11'111'1E51 s11 dugs 11':r: intrnducml :11 kill :11: :ats1 :1ltl111ugh 111:}: did nut 11::11-111: a 1111isan::_ 1Within 5U 1':ars :1f :11: Intrndnctinn 11f:ats, th: __:,n11 n:ts, 1111111111111, 1:1'111, l'rigat: bii'dn :t:., 11'hi:h had :11lunis:d :11: ltn1':1' 1111p:s :11":'1s::nsi11n 11':r: gnu: 'I"J1:s: sp::i:s ha1': L'r::n drh':n :11 :lifls, i11a:::ssil'r|: l:dg:s and an niffishnr: island, 11:1ats11'ain Bn'd 1'.an 1111's: 1'1'11'1'1'_r'.ilr'111'rt:1'1m and 3mm” 3:" Island, 1.s'hich has 1'cntaincd cat-frcc. .Jssccnsmn had its tns'h llightlcss Laird, tun, thc chdcmic Hisccnsi-n-n Rad (Ix-Inlfli'l'nliflil rfprmrrl. It Is pnssihlc tltat this bird 111igl1t has'c surs'is'cd until l'l‘n: ads'cnt 11f tltc cats :11 1315 I_1“acl-'.cr. 1933 :1. .Jssccnsidn's fcw tinlrists arc taltcn un hunt trips arnund lit-atsss'ain Bird Island and thc sinlnd, sntcll and sight ufthc dcnsc as'1an Iit'c thcrc air-cs thctn a tastc 11f what thc whulc island ntust has'c hccn lilsc a flaw gchcl'atidns agu. Unls' thc Island’s Elm-1111s scucn's' turns [imam fiismml, thc widcass'altcs, 1'cn1ain tsn tltc lins'cr grtsund, pl'ntcctcd by: an unusual hfc cs'clc. 1I.-"r'idcawal-tcs cuntc IE1: .Jssccnsinn cs'crs' tcn 1nuntlts in hngc nLInihcrs tn hrccd in ninss' cungrcgatinn 1n arcas 11f thc island lthins'n as ss'idcawahc fairs. During cach hrccd1ng, cjrclc, pcl'haps lU,‘[lflU cltsclts a1'c Inst tu cats and tu- .Jisccnsiun's cndcnsic li‘igatc hirds. I-Iins'cs'cr, thcn all thc ss'idcawaltcs dc part and 111.1111: cats stars'c, s11 thcrc has hccnntc cstahllshcd a prcclatnr-pJ'cs' rclatiunsllip which cnahlcs ss'idcats'alccs and cats IJ‘LII'l'I'I Es: sLIrs'is'c uh tltc island‘s ltns'lands. 'l'hcrc arc schcntcs in thc rafting, IIIZII 11's' and rscl 1’ssccn smn 11f1ts fcral cats, which niaw numhcr up It: fill-U. .JLE-flllflfilfll'l Island‘s plants arc alsn LIndcr tltrcat. Ennsc has'c snccunth-cd t11 gasing—cspccndls' frnns thc gnats which I'isamcd thc 1slahd Ili'flfl'l thc carh' s'cas's ut'c: 1ntact, ss'hcn thcs' wcrc lcfi tn farm a thud supply fur passmg shsps, Lll'I'IiII I‘M-sl- whcn thcs' wcl'c I'inalls' cmdacatcd- Snmc plants has: lust tltcir cculugjcal nichc tu c11ntpctitinn frnnt. :ntl'udnccd spccics- Bushland Elli] alicn spccics hass: hccn 11ttn1duccd EH isccnsitsn :L'Lmnlt, 193:]; scc 1ls11 Duffcs', I964 1-- ln 1351i thc Ih1tanical Liardcns in Liapc ann scnt 223 spccics', 'FL'IrU pacl-Lcta 11fsccds ss'crc scnt fnan Isicw LiaJ'dcns 111 Lu-J'Idnl‘l in 133%. Thu must I'cccnt pruhlcnutic intrncluctinn 1s thc 1"s’lcs1cru1 '[l1fl-J'l‘1 I" Ramps; J1'1:1'1_',tl':1111,'1 whach is sprcarlang s'c1's-' rapidly, ascsplanncd ahtwc- It Is Ewing, thc lnwcr parts nfthc Jsland .1 nmrc s'cl'dant appcas'ancc, tan .1 rcccnt rcp-urt nistcs that its prcscncc is damaging tu thc island’s cnnscrs'atinn intct'cst in that, putcntiallt', it ctnlld ctwcr 91D p-cr ccnt 11f tltc land surlacc. This rcpurt is .‘ssccnsinn Island's Inanagcmcnt plan 4 Pickup, I99? 1, drawn up It: ltclp ads'isc cut its cns'irclnnscht -:scs: als-rr rlL'ithl-IL‘ and Hishn'lnlc, Ellflfli. This Ihllnwcd a gimd dcal 11f L'Il'l'IiIICIS-l'lll. 11f thc British apprnach It; cnnscrs'atmn c111 tltci1' island dcpcndcncics 1' fur csamplc, Uldticld, 1513?; Pcarcc, l‘i'EH-J. Thc Mcsican thin'n pmhlcm un Hssccnsmn as rcminisccnt 11f thc scriisus prnhlcln :111 matw l’aclflc :slands causcd h]: jhtcstatinn :1f1nicnnia 11111111111: miwsrrml. Un thc Swath African Maritsn Island in sntlthcrn lndian Uccan, an intruduccd plant, :l‘rtmsrls stainnifhn was first rcctsrdcd at a hasc statitan in I965, pmhahis' hmught in as sacd in fisddcr ur unchartch sun]- “list 1933 :t had cstcndcd rapidly: acrnss apprtssi1natch' unc-third 11f thc island, I'cplacing tltc natural s'cgctatiun :1fn1ans' st1'ca1n hanits, draihagc lincs and sccpagc slupcs‘ (Smith, 1981p. 2 I151- hnuthcraitnttlt r'sfrican island, [.1nutltcr.L 1"1'1ncc Edward Island, ltas a hcttcr c1111sc1'ratiisn rccn-rd in that ‘11an 11111: alicn spccucs, Pals 1111mm. nccurs at Princc Edward Island. Strict prccau tit1ns arc taltcn whcncs'cr thc asland is 1'1sitcd, [LII cnstn'c that sccd is nfl-l‘ carl'scd :111 chi-thing, hunts, l1I.‘IlI.Ifl}‘IT1:J".'L'l11:Cl.'s 111' camping cquipmcnt" Iansith, 193?, [3. HF]. Intrisduccd fauna, as with thc casc csfrlcsccnsiisn's cats, suppnscdls' hnnlght 1h :11 catch thc 1'ats,ltas'c parallcls clscss'hcrc, ttsu, such as Marinn Island, whcl'c 3 ii .‘1 hnrriqa'nps'ss uj' s'n'rs asst: cats wcrt :ntruduccd IJ'I I949. Iis' HTS thcs'c wcrc tn'cl' 23m} and thcs' ss'cl'c killing scs'ctal hundtcd thtnisand hutrms'mg, hu'ds annually. Htlnihcrs ss'crc rcduccd l'I-1_.'Tlls: J'clcasc ut'a cat virus and by shunting, tSmith, 193?]. On Lcii'd Hins'c Island utt'.-"iustl'alia, tats wctc accidcntalls' Intmduccd in I‘ll-3.. That wttc such a pruhlcm that, in 19312], with wcs'c httnlght in tcr cradicatc thcm hut instcad atc lucal hirds. Thus with art nuw a pmhlcnn thc tats sustain a pruhlcm and an: lacing, naught with puisun. in thc lfliifls a prisgrasnmc tu ctadicatc gnats un .lddal'u'a In thc Indian Uccan hcgan, in an ct'fin't tcu ptcsci's'c thc halal-tat pf birds and thc giant tnttuiscs- Linats, alung 1.l'ith disgs and pigs, aJ'c anmngst thc inttnduccd spccics cau sang, damagc nn thc I-'._i-alapagsss Islands. Intrnduccd gnats has'c alsn causcd damagc tan .lslcsandcr Sclltirlt‘s island tat Masaticti'a ut't'tlhilc Ij‘I-lfcstct, I‘ii'ill 1. {.Jn I's'cw Ecaland, tndcntic birds such as thc flightlcss Ital-:aptr [.‘sh‘shnaps Iam’swprh'ns], thc taltahc and lawn thc kiwi arc thi'catcncd lw habitat ltJS—h and prcdatitsn ti'unt Inttnduccd spccics such as pussums, dcct, rats, cats, stuats and wcascls- Thc haltapn is lacing, hi'td un twn ptcdatut—ti'cc trt't'shtitc islands, hut tclcasc inns thc wild un thc main islands will first thun'c hcttcr c-n-nttnl Inf intmduccd spccics thcrc- Lil'nc kiwi spccics, thc littlt sputttd lu'ss'i, liltc thc ltahapti stirs'n'cs unit can an island I'cscrssatinn, stucltcd 1with birds taltcn t'mm thc n'lainland. Islands arc ss'imctinics imptsl'mnt in LTUIflglCfl] tcrms L'rccaUsc thcir isislittiun has cnal'rlcd spccics Tu survis't thctc whcn thcji' has'c hccn pushcd t'rnm tsthct mutt acccssihlc sputs- 'I'lnls thc ss'ntl'nril ufits island‘s Hatiunal Paths and ‘Ir 'inlatia Sal's'icc, thc 'l'asmsunan fltfl'll {.im'srspfss'e'm Isma‘n'h'h is nuw tiiund trnl]: LlI'l thc island, but :incc csistcd tsn thc Australian mainland- Islands mi ght alsis Inc a stratcgic lucatmn tin' migrating, l'ris'ds ur scahitds. lit Hilda, nitast tcmntc nfthc Untcl' l-Ichtidcs, has a n‘usgc nt'suh-spmics, nt'mnusc, wrcn and, as nut-ad ahi n'c, shccp, but is alsu s'ci's' significant tint scal‘urds, including thc ss'ns'ld's ltugcst cultinics ts’r'ganncts and flit raginn's largcst put'fin culuns'. lit ls'ilda is thc tanh' L'hl E511 Ir ‘L-Fm'ld Hci'itagc Enc tifthc 1? in thc UK It: lac dcsignatcd ['st ll'_'-i cculisgs'. I‘mtcctiun Lindct dcsignatiun tit lat lcgislatiint is nhs‘iuusls' imptn'tant and is tn hr: chc-tslncd; as with thc asnttsunccnicnt in 199's? tn' s'sustralia that thc gun'ctnmcnt is TU l‘ruild thc wnrld‘s higgcst mai'inc patlt at h-Iaccluattic Island IL: pmtcct its ss'iltllit'c, cspccialls' thc pcnguans, ti'nni disturhancc and fruits pulhititin. Huwcs'cr, zinc cannnt Icgislatc against accidcnts and ah-tsut 201ml] scal'rii'ds wcn: ltillcd in just a small I'Jll spill in I993 in thc ctsuital 1watcs's tnfficrmany's .‘ichlcswibr Hulstcin Hatitsnal Park, which iu'titctcd thc lint-hing islands unt'thc 'lr‘lr'addcnstcc- 'I'hc [Hatcntial impact nf' ant isil spill t'rtnn ncw ds'illings in St Hilda‘s L'cgmn ut'tht Atlantic wuuld alsu lac s'crs' sct'nnls, 1a'at'ncd thc lntcrnatinna] Uni-an l'iflt' thc [itinscl's'atnin ut' Haturt in 11.49"} .j'citcd in thc hairpins-er [‘1 TM]: 1999']. Risks rs- islands Finally, it shti-LIld hc ntncd that island ccnss'stcms arc alsu 1rulncs'a hlc tn natural disastci's. Maiw trnpical islands arc su L'ricct tu hurticancs, ts'phcauns ut cs'clnncs; s'tilcanlc island ccnss'stcms arc thrcattnccl lw cruptmm- Wistsc than any tit Island's: Iirra'a'jF-iarmrtsfan and unftn'r 39' these as the threat tn the 'rery esastence tzf lmy-Iying islands. Such places are suhiect nnw EL: risl-zs frurn sea level rise hruught ahnut by glnhal warming" caused it is thuught hy the greenhuuse effect- This was a Inajtsr crancern at the L131 Linnt'erence un I-ins'u'tsnment and lJes'elupment at Em de Ianeirn in I992 and, since then, has been a fucus tat' the UNEEEI} I-inyir-tsnment and l'.'Ieyelannent in Litmstal Reginns and Small Islands ((151) prugrarnme. This has the aim uf establishing wise pmctice fur cnastal cummunities including small islands- UHESLEU aim has an interest with the Intergm'ernn'lental Uceanngraphic Linmmissinn and the Permanent Service ftsr Mean Sea Les'el lfl the Gisirui has Lease! {hissi'srmfl Jigs-stem {Lilli-Lilli] 1991-]. Sea level rise will impact adyersely aIi tss'er the 1.s'urld tan islands and mainland alike1 but it is putentially at its mnst sermus liar atnll IlliI'.1l'LL'I.fi [Linn nell1 1993 J. The rise :in sea leyel discs nut actually haye tu pur such islands underwater tn render them unnnhahitahle- Be ftsre that the increased Iihelihtiud tsfinundatinn in sturms with damage tu sea defences, intl'astructure and agriculture anti salinisatiun inf the fresh water lenses ss'cuuld prnhahly haye driven the peuple away. :"i’ttslls hare nu higher grnund In which penple can relucate. ln I999 the Stiuth Pacific Regipnal l-Znyirtsmnent 1“rngramnte repisrted tempurary inctsm'euaences caused hy sea level rise1 such as the mute frequent I'ltJIJLIlfl g uf the airylurt at Maiuru in the Marshall Islands. There were mute ntajur pmhlems such as salinisatinn elf stalls in Twain and beach emsmn :n the Maidis'es; L'rht wurse still was the actual disappearance already nf twti uninhabited islands in lsliriialati1 Tehua Tarawa and .stanuea [cited in the Indrprnn'rnr as! Sunday. 13 lune 1999]. His early as 1990, Itshn I{itannell identified the first refugees frtsm the greenhcuuse effect1 with petsple haying tn mm'e frnm the atulls that are the lliiarteret islands uf ll'apua New Lininea tu 1‘lflL1 gainyille. In the Ljarteret Islands a yersiun nf the Ii._ireenl'it_luse eftect has already uccurred- Risin g seas haye largely destruyed the ectinumy and ftsrccd u'llr- tmgratitsn- lslanclers whti were tmce merely ecunnmic refugees. freely murin g away tissm their imptwetished islands‘ haye bectmse em'irunmental refugees. The situatitsn taf the Liarterct Islanders...is iii-Leiy tn be widely shared :in the years tn cnme. [Issa.p.1s4} In 1993 the gm'ernment nf the is-ialdiyes hegan building an artificial island, Huihtunale. taf’r'l'lrlale1 which wuuld he able Is'r serye as a refuge fur up tn half the cnuntry‘s pnpulatinn, whilst. in the meantime, alsu sers'ing as an extra runway fer the airpurt. This chapter has shtns'n that small islands are fragile natural systems. Their sis-re and scale make them alsn prnhlematic in physical terms fur human nccupatinn and mat just because nf sea les'el rise- Rainfall can he yataahle and there are very ctsmmnnly water supply prnhlems as will he esemplified in lChapter 3- The succeeding chapters will clemtsnstrate stsme thing ufthe ii‘agility uf the human systems that dereltsp un small islands. 4U :l hnrriqmpi'n- rif'iilrxml': References Key read 1‘ :13]: :"..rt}' gent-cl general gecflugg.‘ te ethican will demnmtrate the l'nrnutinn ul'ifihnrix afixuciatetl with plate tectcmicii1 t]11n:e listed here [13' 'l'Jrl'Ittclt .ntcl Lulgens. JlZHEJ Wicamler and thme ce rtainli' den. Piscen Hie-n Island ii: much uxecl in ll't|.'1.t'.'.'l'.l:. an excellent 5:111 rce liar it‘s bingeugrapln' it the recent :repeurt 113' Pickup. l-l-mrttler cunt-identitiqu {ll-55131111 ecnsyfitelnfi can be seen in Mitchell and Quammm. :lecltrnule , 1". and :llaltmule, M. |' 1 UU'U‘J .5; Helena. nurt' .hrrniien Ewirrf: .1 natural timer}; Ftrtthunt' Nelsen: Um‘eatre. Huytl. l.|"r1--I: WW] l3"'«.'.1tt|r:IJ Initury’, in Ali-nu” I_L'l.‘l._l :l .5.‘ Kifi'i'n J'mmfiwrib, The Hatinml Twist [in Scutlrtltd: Ultit'erxitjr ut'lhlltdee, liepnrlmeltt (Fl-UCULJII'JFIIJF Uceasitnul Paper 5:, pp. Jill—313. Karin. Ill... [-ilcle rlieltL H- and La'tlEl'ttUn.‘ :15. lecisl [19W] :lufhf-crn'mr realm: li'l'i'Tfl'Nli-FI elf-preran m'mriMud :IPit'i'r I'LIr ri'mlim-r grueli- firm Hir ran-mt, Cambridge Unit'erxitj' [’remi: Cambridge. [Lheeten LI. and McU-regug r't. |199?] Aumm'in': will-1' Mandi, Hudcler Headline: Sednet‘. tunnel], J. (19911:: l'l'ln: {Iarterel I5l..1l'.|l'.l!-:I precedents ul' the greenhnme ell-eet'. Errwnfliir: T51 pp. [51—4- Ill-mind]1 I. If IWE} ‘Climatic change: .1 new security c]'I :tllenge lin' tlte :Itull eutee uf'tlte Snuth l‘.:lc:i1iul:'1 Yi‘rrfem‘nfli inf-{Irmrmunnlmmil rmn' L'ei'nlrlmnlier Pul'nirr. 3 l1 2. pp. 1.73412. l:an (2.41111. |_ 15.331}; ‘l-Ixtinctinn :tltcl fiun'l't'll :in the entle mic vascular Item] ed'.-"I..~:cen!iiu|1 [island'. Hitlhiqimt' ti.'.:I:.I.I.'err'r.n'inn1 1?, 31 FIFL EUF—i‘a‘. l'fiulfi'. I: flirt-II "l'he terrefitrirlJ ecc}]t}g}'til':"tscensciu11 Ifilmd'. friumalrgf'flpphl'd firmly}: 1___pp. 2 l‘J—Sl- i‘trllitci'lel]1 Ht. l199E}.1fi'flhgr'IrJllrIJ11dr'Ir: Immrr "mi mm? in HJr I'flrifir, Funtana: Lenndun Hint ptthliehetl i|1 lgl'lu]. Mmtinter. I..-"t. and [L'trr1 Ht. [l'sl'l'lid-I ‘lleprcnlttctit'e lfiehafiuur [if the [ireen 'l'nrtle LCJIrFm-rr'n Frt_'rfl'fl5] at.-"L~ieen.~iinn It~'l.:i:|1r.l'1 h'nlienml [frqmnpbimfhrirry Rem-inf: Hrflrir'r, 11 pp- ESE—TU. Hafih. LM. {Iii-H34; "I'lte making till-th ecn:-r.li!i::|:ster'1 Time, II Nuremher [994. pp. 32—5. ULlIielcl- S. I! WEN finfimmfl film-mime: Hhmiidrfir' rune'r'mrieu mm” in tire [3H Hrjhrrm'rur ili'rrirerirj, Pieces: Uxfnrd. Packer. I.E. [1933] .‘1 rum-m guide tr.- .hrmn'un fu'nrml', Smith .‘llh'rmn'r. privately- pulwliehed- Pearce. 1:. iii-3‘94] ‘Eritaiu's aluntinned elt'.l:I1':I1:'r New .fl'icmifl, 13 April 1994. pp. 213—31. Pickup. $.13. [ ] 995:1} flirt-mime fern:an mnnnfirmruf I'll-m, Hut-ml Sriciet]; I'Urtl'le l‘rcnectiun cJJ'llir-Lls: Sandy. Qtlamlne r:1 D. I_ l'ial'J'EII ill-entry; rafter n'miu: Mn Im' i'li'uhqrqginpfirj Err rm nfir arrnri'ieerifiw, Scribner: New Turk. Smith, ‘Ir’J-L | HHF] "l'l'le en1.'i rnnntent and him] ul'l'lrinriun l.~i].:lrJ-tl'1 Sirifi-flfi'ikflnw Iiu't'Lbnfr-e'r H'E'fmfim‘h, 33. pp. 2 l l—lfl'. 'l'Jrhnck, 1-'..i. .mcl Lutgenfi, PK. [WHTI 'J'Dr ennui): m1: i'en'mfum'cm h: II'JJI.I_1-'IJ:E'|'T|!I|_.ITL'f.'Il-I3|'_fl_'|-'1 Merrill: Culttrnlnte. UNI-{SEEM HEM-II 5m .I'nlrt' :Iurmimn'nfi in me mm H in'nmfn'eirrielru'flfi Hairs. UNI-{SKI}: I'm-is. hard H1115: .U'm'i' fl: man in H n mi an m rt 41 1r1rr|.'!'il Walux Natumlixu' 'I'nlsr (n-d.':- Hume? Emmi, WEE: 'l'ir'JJL's Naturallm' 'I'rLLHt: Hau'urriznrdu 1:31. Wufitu r: L. [1991 :u‘lm'as'mm: Jml uxlinctinnx 1m I'm-1mm EE'J [him Fernandez! Islands In: 1 rain: ufurLrle' |1i.r:tn:1rl|::L|: UI'lIJL'I'lL'L': frmr'urr! asz'srm'imI Urqfi'fipbj', I]? I, pp- 13—34. Winn-dun 1L :I:I1I.|.J‘.'n-'1r_1nrvn-I:1 iii-I 1995:: Em'nmflwfiquu _', West: MinutaanEHJ-"St Paul. ...
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royle_ch2 - 2 Islands Their 113111111111311 111111...

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