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3phases - o only effective when polar molecules very close...

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3 phases  - dependent on the intermolecular forces gas o takes on volume/shape of container o compressible o flows easily o diffusion occurs rapidly liquid o takes on shape of container o doesn’t expand to fill container o incompressible o flows readily o diffusion occurs slowly solid o keeps its own shape/volume o incompressible o doesn’t flow o diffusion occurs very slowly intermolecular forces  - much weaker than ionic/covalent bonds molecules remain intact when intermolecular forces broken stronger intermolecular forces >> higher melting/boiling points van der Waals forces - intermolecular attractive forces between neutral molecules o dipole-dipole, London dispersion, hydrogen bonding ion-dipole force - between ion and partial charge on an end of polar molecular o ion charge increase or dipole moment magnitude increase >> increase in magnitude of attraction o important for solutions of ionic substances in polar liquids dipole-dipole force - attraction between positive/negative ends of neutral polar molecules
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Unformatted text preview: o only effective when polar molecules very close together o increasing polarity >> increasing intermolecular attractions o smaller molecules >> increasing attraction • London dispersion force- instantaneous dipole moment o found between nonpolar and polar molecules o due to temporary dipole moments at particular moments • polarizability- how easily an electric field can change the molecule’s charge distribution o increasing molecular weight >> increasing strength of dispersion forces o most massive/polar molecules have largest attraction forces • hydrogen bonding force- intermolecular attraction between hydrogen atom in polar bond and unshared electron pair on another molecule o generally stronger than dipole-dipole/dispersion forces o hydrogen’s small size lets it get close to electronegative atom o equal amounts of water take up more volume as solid than as liquid (usually reversed for other substances)...
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