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acids - o element electronegativity increases>>...

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definition  - increases the concentration of H+ ions when dissolved in water  the H+ ion generally forms H3O+ w/ water Bronsted-Lowry definition - donates proton to another substance o even applies to substances not dissolved in water o weak H-X bond, stable base, positively polarized H >> stronger acid Lewis definition - electron-pair acceptor pH = -log [H+] strong acid - complete dissociates, [H+] = [acid] o HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4 weak acid - partially dissociates o Ka = [H+][conjugate base] / [acid] o [H+] = [conjugate base] when Ka is very small polyprotic acids - have more than 1 ionizable H atom o easier to remove 1st proton than second o Ka becomes smaller binary acids - contains hydrogen and 1 other element o bond strength determines acid strength o element increases in size >> bond strength decreases >> acid strength increases
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Unformatted text preview: o element electronegativity increases >> polarity increases >> acid strength increases • oxyacids- OH and oxygen bonded to a central atom o element electronegativity increases, # of oxygen increases >> acid strength increases • carboxylic acids- contains a carboxyl group, largest cateogry of organic acids o # of electronegative atoms increase >> acid strength increases Find the pH of a 0.001 M solution of acetic acid • Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 • Ka = [H+] [acetate] / [acetic acid] = x2 / 0.001 • x = [(1.8 x 10-5) (0.001)]1/2 = 1.3 x 10-4 = [H+] • pH = -log [H+] = 3.87 Find the pH of 0.1 M solution of HCl • strong acid, completely dissociates • pH = -log [HCl] = 1...
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